El Hierro – Fast GPS Displacement

I digitized several IGN GPS station data and put it in one plot. Still haven’t gotten around to the Mogi yet. As noted yesterday, I’m going to have to make some assumptions about where the freaking magma chamber is at.

During the run up phase, I assumed (always be careful when you assume) that it was at about 15 to 17 km deep and 4.1 miles from stations FRON. That’s where I came up with the 750K m³/day estimate. (actually, 798,645 m³/d with 34.8 mm lateral displacement at FRON)

This covered the accumulation rate up until Bob went “pop” and the Jacuzzi started. (63,891,583 m³ total in the 80 days until eruption) If you also assume that Bob has been acting as a relief valve (well, Bob and any related but unseen vents) then you can take the relatively flat GPS displacement to mean that Bob and crew are venting off what is accumulating in the chamber.

That puts the effusive rate at the 750K to 800K m³/d level.

I haven’t done a new Mogi yet…. mainly since I’m not really sure where to stick the chamber. (no, I am not sticking it there, that would be physically impossible) Another reason is that I’m still rummaging around to find my spreadsheets. (eight drives and a couple of TB of crap scattered all over the place)

And… the third reason, which I mentioned earlier, is that I think that the current distortion field shows a shallower and possibly bifurcated chamber(s).

From yesterday

Image: GeoLurking

Larger picture http://i40.tinypic.com/ibml8i.jpg

The positive values east of FRON are crap. There is no positive displacement east of FRON in the data! It shows up in the plot like that due to the way that the quadratic surface deals with fitting the available data points. As noted on the plot, lines of bearing to the stations east of FRON show a negative displacement. (IZAN, LPAL etc) This means that FRON and those stations are closer together.

What is important in that plot, is the area west of FRON. Thats the direction of Sabinosa and Los Llanillos.

In that direction, there are two really strong displacements straddling a not so strong displacement. Where the color bands are squashed together are going to be the locations that have the most displacement… and if there is uplift (which we can’t see from IGN’s truncated GPS data) it’s going to be at those points.

Now my most recent plot

Image: GeoLurking

Larger picture http://i39.tinypic.com/ta3pg5.png

This is a running plot of the IGN GPS data and the quakes (with depth) that was going on at that time. As you can see, the displacement settled down to a pretty constant level once Bob started.

The disturbing thing to note, and the part that is used in the previous map style plot, are the last few days. Something kicked the displacement into high gear. Don’t know what. That is what makes me think that there may be a shallower set of magma accumulations.

As for the idea of it being hot water… nah. If water gets hot enough to expand to that amount of pressure (to cause the observed distortion) it would have ruptured the surface and we would be looking at geysers.

Well, there are the plots and my take on it. I’m not a geologist… so I could be wrong.

It may or may not be correct, but I have read papers that postulate that the El Golfo slide may have generated decompression melting. I have no idea how long this goes on, but I found it curious that one day, this swarm just started out of the blue. To me, its as if the magma formed in place and started moving. Now, after Bob has taken some stress out of the system, new material gets mobile.

Ruminate at you leisure.



872 thoughts on “El Hierro – Fast GPS Displacement

  1. Quote from Armands site:
    a) the lava balloons found on Saturday had sizes up to 2 meter !
    b) the max. temperature measured on the outer skin of the LB’s was 85.5 °C. As explained in our article below, lava balloons are able to come to the surface because of the volcanic gas in the interior of the balloon. (ER : the same gas is responsible for the burning lava at sea. The ignition temperature need to be higher than 85 °C, but as the temperature at the interior of the balloon is a lot higher, the ignition starts when the LB breaks apart. If he does not break apart, the LB will cool (with a lot of steam) en the gas will not be burning. This is the main reason why only few LB’s are showing burning gas at night).

    I checked which volcanic gases can burn.
    H2S, CO, CH4, H, eventually NH3
    CO2, SO2 and noble gases cant burn. Did i miss something or get anything wrong?

    Does anyone have an idea which gases could be hidden inside those LBs and so create the light we saw some days ago?

    • Just a guess: Methane? John Seach, http://www.volcanolive.com/methane.html :

      “Underground explosions occur in front of lava flowing over burning vegetation. Plants burn without oxygen as they are covered by lava, creating methane gas. The gas fills underground lava tubes.

      When the methane ignites, the ground explodes up to 100 yards/meters in front of the advancing lava flow. Rocks and debris blast in all directions.”

    • One more guess: Hydrogen? http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/2000/00_03_09.html :

      Flames from vents are hydrogen gas burning

      “Large and colorful flames sometimes play from vents on Kilauea volcano. These flames, which range from yellowish orange to greenish blue and reach as high as 1 m (3 ft), result from hydrogen gas burning in air. Hydrogen is normally a minor constituent of volcanic gases. It is generated deep inside a volcano by the reaction of iron compounds with water. The temperature at which hydrogen ignites in air depends on its concentration; generally the more hydrogen present, the lower the temperature required for ignition.”

      We indeed saw different colours of fire.

      • Evening Sissel
        I think Carl’s correct about the dark patch on the Ejaf cam – it does look like a steep slope – ah well!! We can but look
        I love your videos!! 🙂

    • I do not know for sure what gases are in the balloons and we won’t know until IGN published the analysis.

      H2S burns at low temperatures with a blue flame to form SO2. The other gases seem to need much higher ignition temperatures.

      • You know, until I see a block that is cracked open and hollow (some recent specimens), I am not sure they are lava balloons. Did I miss a picture somewhere? Lava Balloon = floating block with large internal cavity. I’ve seen pictures of some Restingolitas that were displayed, but they weren’t hollow. Surtseyan activity will lob lava bombs up. But, until they post pictures of hollowed out rocks, it will remain a puzzle to me, the puzzle being the flames. Restingolitas also float, and also smoked. Who has a picture of the recent material? The scenario mostly fits, but not completely, without a picture.

      • I would doubt that it is H2S that is burning because it is much more likely that it would react with the water than ignite. I’d put my money on it being hydrogen or methane.

        • H2S will burn easily if there is an ignition point at temperatures well below 85C. SO2 will react with the water to produce H2SO4, etc..

  2. Professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology and maximum scientific advisor of the Japanese government on underwater volcanic eruptions, Kenji Nogami, has flown in on Saturday and today Monday, January 9, the eruptive area south of El Hierro accompanied by technicians of the Institute volcanological de Canarias, non-tip.

    At 12:00 hours on Monday, accompanied by Nemesio Perez has been received by the City Council of El Hierro by its president, Alpidio Arms, and his security adviser, Maria del Carmen Morales, who thanked the interest and eruptive process monitoring in the waters of El Hierro and its contribution in the face of the scientific community, as well as professionals in non-tip.

    Kenji Nogami said that there are no major differences between submarine eruptive processes in Japan and produced at this time in El Hierro. If you made clear, as Nemesio Perez, discoloration of water and place the material ejected in the eruptive phase phenomenon, which lasts three months, and that there are clear indications that it is entering a phase posteruptive.

    The Japanese expert recalled that the Japanese submarine eruptions have lasted from a few hours to 2 years and their duration depends on the amount of magma available. The potential contribution of new magmatic material from deeper magma pockets shallower other scientists to cast doubt on the duration of this process underwater eruption south of La Restinga.

    On questions about the risk of such volcanoes in the face of population, Nogami said it at least until the new volcano has not reached about 20 feet deep or less, when entering the explosive phase and in For submarine eruptions in Japan, has led columns of up to 400 meters of gases and pyroclastic surges of up to 1 kilometer distance from the eruptive source. El Hierro is still far from that scenario and Nemesio Perez recalled that even visually you can control helicopter, which a priori is guaranteed security.

    On the flight conducted scientific recognition on Saturday with the support of the helicopter unit of the Guardia Civil, Nogami and scientists observed the presence of non-tip balls or balloons oversized lava, some of them more than two meters. They also found that the thermal difference in the surface of the water environment affected by the submarine eruption of El Hierro has become of 4.9 degrees Celsius higher than the records last month. These measurements were carried out using thermal imaging cameras in air mobile position.

    The temperature differences reflected in the surface environment of marine waters affected by the underwater eruption reflect a substantial heat flow as a result of eruptive activity and can be an additional tool for monitoring the evolution of the eruptive process, says Perez.

    Nemesio Perez recalls that one must be prepared to rise and fall times of the phenomenon in the eruptive phase.

    • I’m a little dubious about some of these comments as Japanese and Canarian magmas I believe are very different

      • Yes, the canarian magmas are of a nicer kind than the general japanese magmas.

        But otherwise Nogami is really good. He is the equivalent of team leader at IMO, one of the best in the business.
        It is interesting that it is Perez and Armas that are mentioned in the article. Not a word about IGN and Pevolca. I guess the politicians have started to want their own experts…

        • Excuseme Carl…
          I´ll explain you the situation like native I am.

          Involcan is a private company working for them and for the Canary Goverment.
          Armas(local pwer at Hierro) and Nemesio Pérez would liike to have plenty power for the managament of this crisis.
          Pevolca and IGN (and the mute CSIC) are in the other band.
          They have plenty power to decide where, when, and what is published.

        • @Carlos:
          Yes I know about that.
          It is for me a rather stumping situation really. And also that absolutly everything is politically motivated is for me totally ununderstandable.
          Just the idea that politics are interwoven with science is such an odd notion that it makes my poor northern head spin. If any politician tried to put his hand into something like this he would just be told to hump a sheep here… And also the low respect the real scientists get, and the idea of hiding information.
          Well, I guess it is a cultural thing in the end.
          But on the other hand, cultural thing has also given you great wine, food, wonderfully relaxed atmosphere, friendliness, and horkload of other good stuff. So, as always, ups and downs!

        • @ Carl
          Do we get some Eclogite and Dunite for pudding? My taste buds are getting ready!!
          I seem to remember seeing hornblende picrite on Anglesey near the pillow lavas

      • It´s a bad translation of bing.
        The right traslation is:
        There are no reasons to think we are in posteruptive phase…

        I´m sorry for the undermistake.

        • Disregard my 05:58 then… other than that whole “waning” thing that I could be wrong about in my interpretation.

        • Carlos, tu mientes. INVOLCAN no es una compañia privada, es una institucion oficial. El ITER pertenece al ministerio de Fomento, y el IGN es un organismo gubernamental. Y tu eres un cantamañanas. Asi de claro.

      • Well, I think that everything after 10 October would be “post” eruptive.

        Dunno if they mean after it started or if they seem to think that it has stopped.

        In my disjointed non-expert view…. it is on the waning side of things. The spectra, though still active, doesn’t seem to indicate that the magma is hell bent for leather to get out of the chamber.

  3. Canary Goverment.

    low levels of SO2 emissions into the atmosphere by the eruption of El Hierro underwater

    01/09/2012 … 13:52 – Ministry of Economy, Finance and Security

    The measurements have been performed using optical remote sensing type miniDOAS

    Scientists at the Institute of Technology and Renewable Energies (ITER), an agency of the Cabildo of Tenerife, and is now part of volcanological Institute of the Canaries (non-tip) have reported to management of the Civil Protection Special Plan for Volcanic Risk Canary Islands (PEVOLCA) the submarine eruption of El Hierro continues to record low rates of emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere.

    Monitoring and measuring the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) reached a peak of 109 ± 19 tons per day last November 6, 2011. This maximum value was recorded prior to the intense bubbling observed last November 8, 2011 High water, gas and ash that reached suspended several meters above the water surface. Since then the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has experienced a decline in their values, and currently is near the detection limit of the analytical methodology used (~ 2 tons per day).

    These results reflect an emission rate of sulfur dioxide (SO2) relatively lower than those normally recorded in subaerial volcanic systems, which are eruptive phase, because most of the discharge of sulfur dioxide (SO2) trapped in sea water as a result of a neutralization reaction between acid volcanic gases and seawater alkaline nature. This process results in a marked decrease in the pH of seawater as this has been reflected through the measurements taken by research vessels “Professor Ignacio Lozano” and “Ramon Margalef” of the Canary Institute of Marine Sciences (ICCM) and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO), respectively.

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide emissions (SO2) have been performed using optical remote sensing and COSPEC miniDOAS type air mobile position with the support and collaboration of the Helicopter Unit of the Guardia Civil in the Canaries.


    The tremor signal recorded by the seismic stations of the National Geographic Institute has a similar range compared to previous days, showing some periods of decline and some pulses during the January 8. The presence of the signal is noting the continuity of the eruption that became visible again in the morning yesterday, with the appearance of large pyroclastic on the surface of the sea calms. The degassing visible from the shoreline associated with the exit to the surface of these large pieces of lava, which reach temperatures of 85 ° C as confirmed non-tip.

  4. Copied Judith… tremor goings stronger with pulses or spikes.
    Has arrived the energy of the last 2 eartthquakes?

    Excuseme Carl… I cant avoid it…
    Dedicated to the spanish scientists.

      • Or maybe picture is taken in the southern hemisphere?
        When I was in Australia, two things bothered me for quite a while before I got used to them: that the Moon was upside down and so looked very strange and that the Sun was in the north…

        • Now you may be correct! So an Oz astro scope ‘ll put the moon upside down for Aussies and the correct way up for us!
          Ah perhaps explains our cricket problems – the ball moves the wrong way! 😀

        • @ Alan, what’s also confusing in Australia is that the Moon phases are opposite, i.e. it looks like a C when it grows and inverted C when it is waning.

          The interesting question is then what happens with how you see the Moon at the Equator – how it changes from normal to upside down when you go from northern to southern hemisphere. Also what happens with phases there – how are they seen. We had this discussion with some people when we were in Australia and couldn’t come up with a solution, so I actually asked a friend who visited Kenya to check. He said it looked like it turns during the middle of its night track, but he wasn’t sure, so I still don’t know the answer to this question…

        • Ursula

          “The interesting question is then what happens with how you see the Moon at the Equator – how it changes from normal to upside down when you go from northern to southern hemisphere.”

          I thought it flipped upside down when you went to the Northern Hemisphere…..

        • Cricket, there you have a manly sport…
          It looks so blody odd, but the amount of damages and injuries… Gives the phrase “Jolly good shot!” a completely new meaning. 🙂

        • @ Lurking, but it can’t just flip in a binary motion between hemispheres, can it? I mean, you can’t step one metre north of Equator and it would look normal and then step one metre south of Equator and had it upside down, it’s not possible to have such different perception from a viewing point 2 metres apart, is it? I imagine it has to be a continuous “rotation” movement in the perception, so I wonder how does this look like. I guess I should go travel to some equatorial country and check… 🙂

        • Haven’t you guys ever wondered why the islamic states on the equator have their moon-sickle horizontal?
          The reason of course being is that the moon is silently resting on its back… with the tips up like a cup to fill with with whiskey. That is why scottsmen like north africa so much 🙂

    • Hmm i actually liked this one, allthough it’s way off what i usually listen(Nightwish, Sonata Arctica, Rammstein, Metallica, Sibelius etc…)

  5. Graphic of So2 emission


    Mr Paulino Rivero (President of Canary)

    Where are the graphic of Co2 difusse emission?.
    Involcan cant publish it without permission of the PRESIDENCE OF CANARY ISLANDS…
    Dont worry Mr Paulino when the co2 dates were lower you can publish it quickly….
    I promise you if I see the graphic and I can see that values these late days or week were higher
    You and me will have a serious talk.
    Politicians are too much stupid to know if a science date is good or bad for their interesting…
    They need a coward techniciand who said it him…
    The worst its the voluntary submission…
    Shame, shame, shame.

  6. Tremor is getting stronger and stronger since 16:00 on CHIE, i don’t think they rescaled it because it is a smooth change. But does that really mean that Bob ejects more magma right now or within the next hours ? Or can it also mean whatever action 20km under El Hierro, opening of a new vent, or any other thing i can’t imagine of because i am a newby….

    • General rule of thumb so far seems to be that the higher the harmonic tremors are then the lower the action/bubbling is at Bob. But this could also be wrong as I really don’t know too much 🙂

      • It seems that the higher tremor means the magma is beating against an obstacle on its way out. After some time, there comes an explosion, the way is open again, and when the magma flow is smooth, the tremor turns down. After some time again, the magma flow stops again and the same is repeated in cycles.

        – But I am no geologist either.

  7. Monday
    09.01.2012 22:05:38 65.086 -16.260 5.9 km 1.8 82.52 5.0 km N of Upptyppingar
    09.01.2012 21:31:23 65.088 -16.255 7.7 km 1.7 81.14 5.2 km N of Upptyppingar

    • A couple of small nice quakes.
      Albeit Upptyppingar had a minor inflation about a decade ago, these are mainly tectonical quakes due to the current rifting cycle in the fissure zone.
      The frequent quake swarms at Herdubreid area is rather more interesting since they have been linked to larger magmatic infusion and to Askja volcano. The research of Prof. Rhymer is rather nicely done and points to an increased risk of an eruption in the area.
      It would in an odd sense of the word be nice to see a tabletop thuya erupt. I have never seen anything like that. But, even Rhymer admits that the chance of it happening any time soon is not that large.
      But that Erection Peak (Upptyppingar, also known as Viagra Hills in the US) would erupt is very very low.

  8. Thank you Carlos for that lovely song. It went well with my soothing cocoa after a day spent filling out my tax return on line.
    This is supposed to be easy….. well it is unless you have lost your password and have several questions that arise from the required fields to be filled.
    Every year it is the same… they pay me back about £10.00 GBP…Every year I request to be exempt from filling this marathon form in because my pension will never change much and every year they send me another damned tax form….Grrrrrr.
    The problems of information about Bob’s behaviour are similar to the UK tax system…Everybody knows it’s there and working but nobody really understands the deeper geo or bio mechanics and the mathamatical logic is as complex as the cave systems under El Hierro.

  9. Something happened in under Vatnajökull a little while ago.
    I am not sure what really, it has sofar lasted for an hour, and it shows on several SIL station around Vatnajökull.
    There is a gale in Iceland, but it shows up on unaffected SIL-stations to like Skokkalda.

    Judging from the effect on the various stations I guesstimate that it is Bardarbunga proper that is responsible, and that it is a harmonic tremoring going on.
    Skokkalda is rather noisy, but it shows it best due to not having been affected by wind noise.

    Grimfjöll is noise affected, but is still shows

    Most interesting is Vatnsfell that sits ontop of Veidivötn, also not affected by wind.

    Kreppuhrain shows it too.

    Judging from area picking it up, and that two of the SILs are not affected by wind according to IMO map I would say that it is magmatic movement into a large fissure running from Bardarbunga down towards Veidivötn.
    It is very small, if it was a pre-eruption run of magma it would literally blanket the SILs. So, another small little yawn from Icelands largest active volcano.
    But, it is worth keaping a small eye on.

    IMO map, remember that it might have changed drastically when you read this. So the stations I am saying are unaffected now, may be heavilly affected later on, and vice versa.

      • I do not think so, it is rather small so it is just sign of Bardarbunga sleeping a bit less well.
        She now and then has these small signs of being alive.
        If it was even close to an eruption you would notice, copious amount of hard quake swarms for weeks, tremoring that would be enormous, and when the eruptions starts it should be a barrage of 3-5M quakes ripping down the entire line of the southern fissure swarm as Veidivötn tears open, the minutes leading up to that we would see harmonic tremoring that probably would be so hard that the Skokkalda and Vatnsfell SILs go quiet. Than a 140 kilometre fire curtain would sprout forth.
        Remember, we are here talking about the volcano producing more lavas than any other on earth during the last 10 000 years.
        So, even a rather modest sign of awakening would be larger than the Grimsvötn 2011 eruption.

        • Other than the glee of seeing something like that from far away, I hope that does not happen to anyone… other than a few countries that I will not mention here.

        • As far as I know you do not have anything against the general european countries Lurking? 😉
          My general opinion is that I can name a few countries whos leaders would need a localized volcanic eruption in their house 🙂
          I generally tend to like the peoples, I think I would even like north Koreans, but Kim Un-Jong could do with Hekla opening up under his arse…

        • @Carl.
          This is so a little bit 2012 to me – fire curtain of 140 km and all. 😯
          Last eruption at Hamarinn was I think last summer, and it was really a very shy one ..
          But I like the volcano in the house of some dictators … 🙂

  10. Ramon Margalef will be at Bob round 7:00
    They have been doing some test runs out of SCdT so lets hope they can present some decent data this time.

  11. Everybody keeps linking their flavor of music….

    My turn. Dedicated to the one IGN Geologist who breaks with the norm and gives us the low down on what Bob is up to.

    • Let me clarify…

      I have read papers that indicate that the spacing of the volcanic islands is likely dictated by crustal flexure. At the point where the mass of the island causes an inflection in the curve of the crust, a weak point can form and be the genesis of another volcanic island.

      Fuerteventura and anything beyond La Gomera / La Palma would be outside the influence of El Hierro’s mass on the crust.

      That’s why I would think that it would be related to the Hot-Spot and not El Hierro.

      Now, that doesn’t mean that something really wild with the hot-spot isn’t going on, but baring that, I don’t think it is related.

  12. I always love to start my computer and see a quake near Hekla…
    Good morning all, and thanks in advance for all the interesting reading I will be offered when I steal a minute here or there to peer in during the day. 🙂

    • Happy new year to you and yours GeoLoco. I trust the festive season did not add too many inches round your waist :D. I did so much cooking and fussing (and still am) for visiting family I actually lost weight!!!

      • Thanks, and same to you.
        Oh, my waist… I’ll be glad for these additional reserves in the post 21-12-2012 era, won’t I… Fact is that our kitchen got used and abused too – love it. Life and food in the house, that’s when things make sense.

    • GeoLoco, looks like it was two quakes but so close together it looks like one.
      10.01.2012 04:06:45 63.970 -20.002 7.6 km 0.7 99.0 14.5 km ESE of Árnes
      10.01.2012 03:19:53 63.971 -19.999 7.5 km 2.1 99.0 14.6 km ESE of Árnes

      • Árnes is not a true part of Hekla.
        It has been quite a lot of activity the last few week at the Árnes tertiery central volcano.
        Normally any quake in this area gives Hekla a spike, but this last line of quakes at Árned has not done so.
        Why do we have quakes at exactly the same spot of Árnes? I do not know.
        But the depth of them has been consistent really.
        But there have been quite a few in there area and perhaps it merits a bit of attention from our side.
        Lurking, do you think you could do a plot of Árnes?

  13. If a chart/graph was done relating to all the earthquakes around all the Canary islands since El Hierro started would this show though a pattern was forming and therefore could they relate to whats happening in El Hierro?

    Is it not a possibility that the magma is moving around from El Hierro?

    • Like “building” or accumulating under El Hierro and spreading from there? I’m right now not able to imagine that.

      • I thought the question was abouht spreading in the crust. In the mantle of course. When the plume “hits” the crust a part of the material “evacuates” sidewards…

    • Oh it’s defiantly possible, and highly likely… in the mantle. That’s how the magma got to where El Hierro is. It’s part of the alleged hot-spot’s mechanics.

      Let me go see if I can dig the data up and get you a plot.

        • Compression wave?
          Interesting that such a large area between El Hierro and towards “The Line” of quakes to the NWish, is almost totally empty of quakes. Makes me think of a compression wave release. I know that it cant be one from El Hierro, but might be from the hotspot.

  14. Several weeks are which have been outstanding the Canary Island of El Hierro. The attention of geologists this well deserved, that since 1971 was not produced an eruption in the archipelago, when originated the Teneguía volcano on the island of La Palma. Therefore, this episode magmatic is the first that many geologists have the opportunity of witnessing. Fortunately the eruption there has been populated territory, although the inhabitants of the fishing village of La Restinga, evacuated the last October 11, before the impending eruption would occur in the area. Luckily the eruption happened at 5 Km from the South coast, and more than 1,000 meters deep. Experts had been outstanding in the area since July, when the register of small earthquakes, and small changes in the topography of the island fear an imminent eruption.

    An event of this kind, is always a unique opportunity to learn about the geological volcanism of Canary nature, because strange it may seem, the origin of these islands is still debated today. There are two General models, the first considers the archipelago as an ocean hot spot, while the second considers that plate tectonics plays an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic activity (Hernán, 2004).

    The model of the hot point

    Wilson and Morgan, in the 1970s, interpreted its origin as the linear trace left by a feather rooted in the mantle under the African plate (such as Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean) (Hernán, 2004). The movement of the African plate towards the East should leave the youngest Islands did the West, but Anguita and Hernán (1975) put in doubt the model, by the existence of recent volcanism at both ends of the archipelago.

    Hoernle and Schmincke, 1993.

    Later, Hoernle and Schmincke (1993) proposed a model of point hot, unique to the Canary Islands, inclined made the East, which would extend the area of activity including the entire archipelago, thus explaining the simultaneous activity at both ends. The ascent of magma would be intermittent, in the form of bubbles, and each eruptive cycle would begin only when such an asset bubble to reach the base of the lithosphere.

    Oyarzún et to the. 1997.

    In 1997, Oiartzun and partners, based on the detection using seismic tomography of a large thermal plate sublitosférica, covering also part of the Northwest of Africa and Western Europe, proposed a megapluma (hot spot) in the form of hinge, initiated in the Triassic, when Africa, South America and North America were still together.

    Finally, Carracedo and contributors in 1998 and 2001, retake the classical model of hot spot, noting that differences with Hawaiian type chain are due only to the lowest of the African plate speed.

    Model Tectónico

    Other authors, meanwhile, focused on studying structural criteria. These are show in the region, following large fractures or zones of weakness. For example, the alignments of Islands and volcanoes, or them addresses dominant of them ditches, coincide with the alignments structural documented in the soil oceanic of the region or with them present in the area of el Atlas, in Africa. Include three models, known as tectonic, known as “propagante fracture”, “rise of blocks” and the “unifying” model (Hernán, 2004).

  15. In the first of them (Anguita and Henán, 1975) proposed the existence of a megafractura of tearing that it connects the Canary Islands and the region of the Atlas as an extension of the fault transcurrente South of the Atlas, extending into different pulses to the ocean. Thus related the Atlas plate tectonics and volcanism Canary so that each total impulse (generators compresional processes of mountain chains) recorded in the Atlas is a cycle of great volcanic activity in the Canary Islands. One of the problems of this model is that no submarine faults between two supposedly related areas were detected, nor explains the existence of root causes of vulcanism today exposed to hundreds of meters above the sea level.

    Spider and ortiz, 1991.
    The last argument above, led spider and Ortiz (1991) to assume that the tectonic compressive would have been the cause of the magmatism and the rise of blocks, as a result of the clash of the western sector of the African plate with the European, thus giving place to the model of “rise of blocks”.

    Anguita and Hernán, 2000.
    Finally, the so-called “unifying” model of Anguita and Hernán (2000), integrates the most positive aspects of previous models. They interpret the thermal anomaly sublitosférica in the form of this layer under the Canary Islands, the Atlas mountains and the western part of Europe, represents the residue of a former pen, originated at the opening of the Atlantic in the Triassic, and currently terminally by being depleted its food focus. It therefore recognizes an origin as a hot spot, which not be rooted now in the mantle, not preserved the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of current feathers. The model of “propagante fracture” it takes the idea of the magmas are drained when distention, alternating with compresional periods of Atlas. The apparent elevation of the Islands is explained through a plate tectonics in flower in a regime which, transpresivo, probably the type of plate tectonics which resulted in the elevation of the mountain range of the Atlas (Hernán, 2004).
    Translate webpage http://geosfera-sgp.blogspot.com/2011/10/la-erupcion-de-el-hierro-y-el-origen-de.html Clear All Rate this translation:
    Thank you for your feedback.

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  16. Geo

    Wow thanks and so quick.

    Is this not showing though there is a new swarm of earthquakes seperate from El Hierro around the other islands now?

    • No more than usual.

      Tenerife usually has activity, that’s the other cluster. There are some pretty cool looking lineaments, but I would thing Peter Cobbald would have the most interest in that… It might have some meaning in the stress fields that the islands as a whole experience.

      The only problem is that I can’t discern the error axis from these quakes of the web interface… dunno if they have a “technical quake list” like the boletin list for El Hierro. From that I can sort of fake a fault plane, though it is not scientific.

      What the lineaments might mean, are psuedo rift like structures.

    • I don’t understand why IGN stopped listing the Atlantico-Canarias EQs on the master Boleto list.

      I was trying to see if there was any pattern to those other EQs, but all I could see was that an EQ there was followed by an EQ here, which is no pattern at all, given the number of EQs here. There were a couple of times when the Atlantico EQ occured two in a row. If you look at the 10 day EQ list at IGN, there has been a flurry of Atlantico EQs listed. But, that doesn’t mean much, either. The whole area of the Canary Islands is volcanic. The Earth breathes. This is nothing like the 12,000 EQs preceding the Bob event. So, I don’t think it’s anything, either.

  17. It is the oceanic boat Ramón Margalef making bathymetry…
    If Margale the biggest spanish phycologyst resucited would die again of shame seeing how this generation of politicians scientists is destroying the science difussion.
    What are doing Margalef if we are wating for november 20th bathymetry and the recognized the have not capacity of fast response….
    Today´s bathimetry for today and yesterday´s bathymetry for never…
    Good morning-night Australia (Diana Barnes). Good music.

  18. Hello all!

    Sorry for being a spoilsport all.
    I have to ask everybody to cut down a bit on the music video postings. When they become to many it slows down the page loading a bit, especially I have heard for the phonepeople (I do not get the surfing on phones, but then I am renowned half-blind phone luddite)
    Mind, I did not say stop, just if we could diminish the amount slightly 🙂


    • This place breathes freedom. I tear the Matterhorn off the alps and throw it at those who dared saying you’re a spoilsport.
      Lacking 2012er or troll-bashing it would actually be refreshing to have someone looking for a good old fight… 🙂

      • For some reason the 2012ers seem to not like us.
        I do not get it, none of them have written here as far as I know.
        My guess is that we are too lucid for them. Or fun… As far as I know, none of them have been eradicated from the site.

        • Maybe the have no more time for the internet as they are counting their astronaut-food reserves for the next 2 years and wrapping their radios in aluminium sheets.
          PS: I’d recommend to buy an aluminium radio, so you can spare the wrapping…

        • I have never understood the part with aluminium rapping their ham-radios…

          But you are probably right, they are by now offline due to being afraid of the psychic 2012 mindovertaking Lizzardman virus.

        • What, you heard of the Lizardman too? I dreamt of the queen of the lizardmen some days ago. Ohno ohno ohno… They will perform all these analyses on us… Today I was called because of a 10’000 m3 landslide (yeah, I know, not a giant, but I mean, one more sign for the times we are living…)… Add all the Hekla-Katla-Bardarbunga-Hengill risk – I’m freeking out! They were right. The Maya, the Hopi, the Egyptians, Beat von Däniken…

        • I think the 2012ers wont come here as they know they will get ‘shot down in flames’ with reasoned and documented discussions. Facts always wins over fictions.

        • Deliberate sillyness (us) vs Deliberate stupidity (them)

          surely that’s always the way people look at the world 🙂

          Decline the irregular verb ‘to be eccentric’
          I am/we are an independent thinker(s)
          You are slightly eccentric
          He/she is off his/her rocker
          They are totally mad

  19. There was a programme on British TV this week about the ‘Mayan prophesy’. A guy went over to Guatamala to find out the true story – everyone he spoke to said it was nonsense or they’d never heard of it. He went to USA and found a load of people making money out of it: running survival courses, selling underground bunkers etc. What I want to know is why do these people think that they are the ones who will survive?

    • Actually, I have been a bit suspicious about that date for quite some time.
      Little known fact, it was Feynman (the physicist) that cracked the translation of the language. Problem is just the syntactic parts of it is, and has always been a bit iffy. So yes, the number is correct. But it could equally well say that the cocoa hoard of the Mayan kings will run out in 2012….

      • Let me fill that one out, Feynman did crack the callendar, but he was never a linguist. His stature is though so great that his guesses about the meaning of the actual words was never challenged. So the interpretation is rather open for, yes interpretation.
        Any linguist knows this, but sadly not much headway has been done in the studies of the callendar.

        Now comes the sad part. Feynman is the greatest physicist to ever have stumbled over a particle accelerator. The list of his inventions and theorybuilding in all manners of fields are so great that he has almost become mythical. Even among us who are physicists ourselves he is kind of not human really.

        Enter then the 2012ers. They have made him into things that he was not. Some of them see him as the second coming. And they have taken to the most farfetched things he did, and they cannot see even the most offhand remark from him critically. So, since Feynman cracked it, and he said (he would regret it today), that the mayan civilization would end in 2012, then it by God means that it will end.
        Feynman himself was adamant that he only had briefly dabbled with the code for a short while, and that it was very open for interpretation linguistically. He was also very much into science and proof, so he would be appaled at the 2012ers non-scientific beliefs about it all.

        He actually commented about it when he was still alive, and was rather surprised that they had not understood that it is cyclic in nature.

        • The TV programme did find the single carving that mentions the end of the time cycle in 2012 and got someone to translate it: it’s only a fragment so it can’t be read properly anyway, but it gives the date and seems to indicate there should be a ceremony to mark it. That’s it! The next cycle then begins.
          In Britain we have David Icke who believes the Royal Family, all American Presidents etc are really lizard people. I think most people think he is a harmless eccentric.

    • Americans seem to easily freak out over rumours and conspiracy theories. I am wondering if it is because they have been protected from the worst disasters, apart from Hurricanes and Tornadoes which they usually cope very well with. I think perhaps it is a fear of the unknown. Or perhaps their media is even more sensationalist than the UK one.
      I know I am perhaps making a generalisation on Americans and if I am wrong I offer an apology, but all the ones freaking out about El Hierro sliding into the sea have been American not Canarian.

      • As an American, I agree with you. It seems to be a sad combination of ingrained fundamentalist religion vs. science and facts. Our media is sensationalized, dumbed down and aims for entertainment and profit instead of informing the citizens.
        luckily, the internet has set us free.. 🙂

        • As for media, you just described the vast majority of the UK media. There are a couple of more serious newspapers but most are comics. BBC used to be good but standards seem to have gone into freefall in recent years.

      • Talla says:
        January 10, 2012 at 15:31
        “…What I want to know is why do these people think that they are the ones who will survive?”

        Newby says:
        January 10, 2012 at 15:42
        “Americans seem to easily freak out over rumours and conspiracy theories. I am wondering if it is because they have been protected from the worst disasters, apart from Hurricanes and Tornadoes which they usually cope very well with.”

        It’s not about being the “ones who survive” it’s about being able to more effectively deal with it if you are the ones to survive.
        We have an inherent distrust of the government. Well, those of us who still have common sense do. All too many times the incompetent buffoons have proven themselves to be more interested in self interests than the general populace. As for conspiracy theories, many times they have been proven to be facts rather than theories. Take “Operation Northwoods” for example. Fake Cuban terrorist attacks were to be used to stir up anti-Cuban feelings to get the public more supportive of US action against Cuba. (Circa 1962) That plan made it all the way through the Joint Chiefs of Staff before finally being shot down and not put into action.
        Here in the US, the government can only seize your property through “Imminent Domain.” That is where your land is needed to build something for the public good, such as a road or other public need. In Kelso Vs. New London, the government took private property in order to sell it to a developer who would pay higher taxes. This is clearly in violation of the meaning of Imminent Domain. People were removed from their homes… homes that had existed for decades and had been in the families for quite some time. The Judge ruled that it was perfectly fine to take someone’s private property in order to benefit another private entity.
        In the state I come from, there is a land use clause that covers “16th section land.” That land was set aside when the state was formed in order to cover the financing of schools. No one can own it. You can lease it, and you can farm it, but the lease payments were to fund the schools. With leases running as low as a dollar per year for 100 year leases, you can see where that idea didn’t bear fruit. Thank you corruptocrats.
        Other government actions can be cited… Ruby Ridge, Waco etc… some of which cause the more volatile to snap and take action that is a bit beyond what one would think is appropriate. Even now, we have “Operation Gunwalker” where the US Government bought and sent weapons to the drug cartels in an effort to drum up support for more heavy handed gun regulations. This was to be done by showing proof that the guns originated in the US. Private gun ownership has been a part of the US since it’s founding and has been a deterrent against overt action against the US ever since. A compliant population is one that cannot return fire.

        January 10, 2012 at 15:42
        “I am wondering if it is because they have been protected from the worst disasters, apart from Hurricanes and Tornadoes which they usually cope very well with.”
        Oh we have our disasters. We just don’t wallow in them. Some you don’t hear about since much of our media seems to have more important agendas to deal with. In upstate New York, an entire mountain is in the middle of a landslide…. a laboriously slow landslide that will take a few decades to play out. A few years ago, a peaking reservoir breached it’s retaining wall and flooded the lowlands because some idiot left the filling mechanism running. Along those same lines (dam breach) Teton Dam 1976, Canyon Lake Dam 1972. As for quakes, California has had quite a few incidents through it’s history. (and that brings up that government thing again when you consider what they have done with their water projects)

        Sure, we haven’t had a megathrust quake, or another 1906 San Francisco quake, or another magnitude 9.4 Anchorage AK quake, or a 1919 Boston Molasses Disaster (flood), or another 1871 Great Chicago Fire, (not to mention the 1871 Peshtigo Fire storm that occurred in Wisconsin to the North of there. (most deaths by a single fire event in U.S. history) but we have had a few.

        • I really think we are very fortunate in the UK. Very few tornadoes, although even my town has had two that caused damage they are no massive tornadoes, just usually piddly ones that cause localised damage. One severe storm of hurricane winds in 1987 when a lot of people were killed in the South here, (Of course a lot more severe storms further north especially Scotland and North England) and quite a few flooding incidents but of course the US being on a massive scale also has natural disasters on a massive scale when they happen. And most of all hardly any damaging quakes, yes we are pretty fortunate in these isles and as for politics, I never take part in it.

        • the Ruby Ridge massacre, one that made some tears role over my cheek while watching a documentary about it. very sad story.. sorry i mean reality.

        • A short point on Waco…
          I do not think there would have been one single government on the planet that would have left them alone. Holding minors against the consent of parents kind of bode ill for those doing it, religious nutcases or not (yes, I do have a problem with religions on the best of days…).
          So, even our police would have been given orders to storm the place. And that said we would have had our own Waco. On the other hand I have a problem with seing a religious nutcase church like that attracting a following here, at least more than a few…

          It is actually one of the few instances where I think your government showed more restraint than most other would have. On the other hand a dawn raid of special forces police without even going into negotiations would probably have saved a lot of lives. And that would have happened here. But then the opinion here are rather against far-off churches.

      • I am an American, and I am not hysterical or fearful. I am not a 2012’er, nor do I think that the stars are going to wink out in December. Except for this board, the concern was over La Palma. That, although overblown, was founded in truth, because that particular volcano has a gigantic, unstable crack in it. It is a question of which could or would generate a tsunami: a gigantic landslide which would cast a debris avalanche G-d knows how far out, with an unknown amount of water displacement, or a seabed EQ break which we already know can generate huge tsunamis. Either scenario can generate either a tsunami or a seiche. Worrying about it is pointless. Yet, there is a possibility that El Golfo once generated a wave so large that it did reach other far-distant shores. Still not worth worrying about.

        Only hurricanes and tornadoes? What is the measure of a disaster worth caring about? We have fires, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods…what have we been spared?

        All the people of the Earth have suffered. We are ALL THE SAME. All people want the same things. Food on our tables, roof over our heads, safety for our children. Strip away the culture, and everybody wants what every other person wants. It just comes in different flavors.

      • Better become a breeder of crickets and locust, or do you think they will be huge ones who eat all the cats and dogs? No more wolves, how sad. 😦

      • EEEEeeeewwww! GeoLurking – I’ve just looked up Balut! I don’t like eggs at the best of times and Balut would completely freak me out!
        As for the US government – I admit they do seem to do some weird and wonderful things at times. But there must be something else going on: our government has just announced a new railway which will go through a Green Belt (not supposed to be built on) and an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (not supposed to be tampered with). The residents (who on the whole voted for this government) are up-in-arms – but not literally! The idea of the residents of the Chilterns taking to the hills and refusing to accept the rule of law would make a great Month Python-type sketch – but it will not happen. Maybe the Americans still hark back to the Frontier days and believe they can take off in a wagon to find a better land – do you think this is true?

        • No.. but the problem that American have… is that we no longer have a representative government. Our “two party” system is a sham. We have LIBERAL “Republicans” and COMMUNIST “Democrats”.

          Seemingly, not one single candidate is conservative in any race.

        • i think i ate a accidental balut once O.o it was supposed to be a hard boil’d egg but after eating the first part of rather funny tasting egg white i looked down and found a chick in it didn’t touch eggs for weeks after that.

    • Sven Gronemeyer, http://www.sven-gronemeyer.de/personal.html has decoded this Mayan tablet and found that it means that one Bolon Yokte, Mayan God will come to earth at the end of 13th 400 year cycle we are currently in according to Mayan calender.
      This God is a God of Creation and War he says.


      For those who are interested in end of the world stories read Ragnarok.
      Beautiful poems about almost absolute destruction, with some glimmer of hope in the end.



    • I’ve not worn my gloves yet this year – and I really feel the cold. It’s getting colder this weekend with some frosts – but lovely sunshine during the day (subject to the usual instant changes in the British weather pattern).

      • Thanks for the warning of frosts. Only had one all winter so far! I need to bubble wrap a ginger lily that is finally growing in my garden after struggling for two years. On the coast here we are lucky to be able to grow sub-tropical plants if they are given a bit of care in bad weather.

        • Rhubarb growers in the UK are facing a disaster as there have been no frosts to halt the growth of the plants. Rhubarb forcing is big business in Yorkshire and they really need a longish cold spell.

  20. I would like to comment about the So2 data and graphic offered us by Involcan (with the permission of Pevolca).
    This data doesnt reflect the power of the eruption.
    I can see days of strong eruptive activity and the so2 datas in those days were relativity low.
    I think now in this moment the Co2 diffuse emission would be the dates than better would reflect the moment and potential of eruption in the short time.
    In this historic moment for the sapnish vulcanism I dont think the diffuse co2 emission had been stopped for chriistmas hollidays…
    It would be a dwarf´s thougth in an historic moment althoug this date only would be for publishing future scientiost nworks about this historic event.
    I ask to INVOLCAN and PEVOLCA publish these dates as soon as posible.

    • Hi Carlos

      anyway the measured CO2 or SO2 over the spot depends also of the depth of the eruption as both gases are very soluble in water….so I’m not sure of the purpose of the measuring and what conclusion they draw of it. It is not as if they were measuring gases from a land based eruption…

  21. For the record…Diana lives in North Western England near the Pennine Hills that are reknown for their hardy sheep and wool industry. She is a child of the 60’s and is close to mother nature . However she will eat most things and try anything once …except Scandinavian fermenting fish. That, she has decided, having seen it eaten and promptly brought back, is just not worth the experience.

    Bob is happily tremoring nicely and there is a fierce snowstorm over the centre of Iceland at the moment. I wouldn’t mind doing some warm up exercises here though.

  22. Hi Diana,,,
    what about eating snails like in Spain? hahahahah
    I dont like… I think it is a food and an idea which doesnt like to much to the british people,,, hshshshs
    Excuseme for imagine you at Australia… A big mistake for my part.

    • snails with herb-butter ate it once. will eat it again if i get the chance, it was actually nice.
      also i tried locust/grasshoppers with chocolate sauce and some other sauces also nice 😛
      though be careful with the jump legs they can get stuck in your throat, lol.

      also ate meal worms in rice that was lovely. 😀

    • Portuguese snails are fiddly, but have eaten my way through a plateful – though I fed them on lettuce for a day before cooking with garlic and oregano.
      In my youth, managed surstrumming and new potatoes one Swedish summer – but reckon the Aquavit helped!!!
      Most unusual food eaten …. dried Tiger. One of my fellow students was Scots/Chinese and it arrived tinned in a food parcel from his Mum.

      • how did the tiger meat taste? most of the time i hear when people eat strange food they resemble it with chicken. also it must have been a though piece of meat of such a muscled animal.

        o wow surstrumming i wouldn’t dare touching that one. O.o
        i love herrings though especially the new fresh and just raw herring with some raw onions. every year in June we celebrate vlaggetjesdag (flagday) the return of the fleets with new herrings. although it once started as celebrating of the start of the fleet. its a herring eating frenzy i cant wait!

        “Vlaggetjesdag” 1949

        “Vlaggetjesdag” 2010

        • Worst food I have ever eaten, apart from the spinach my father used to cook to a slime, was squid cooked and served in it’s own ink. Somebody must like it, I think it is disgusting!

        • Hello All, just back from work…
          Schnail I had once, after a very big night out in Madrid, we went to a little bar (los Caracoles) for coffee… The proprietor said “you lads are looking a bit feeble” and scherved us up a schaucer of schnails…It would’ve been rude not to, but I don’t think I’d ever pay for them! Schquid in thier own ink can be bought tinned in Spain and Portugal, I developed quite a taste for them x Chocolate coated scorpions (schting removed) are a bit like KitKats 😀

        • hey schteve,

          i have seen scorpion candy allot, never really dared to try one not sure why but i guess its the same reason i don’t like spiders. :p but then again they look more like lobsters any way and i have no problem with those O.o a well next time i see them again i will consider to try it :p

        • And conversely one of the best foods I tried was baby squid 1-2 inches long dipped in batter and deep fried. Superb!!!

        • Hi Newby,
          Battered baby schquid, in Cadiz; in thier equivalent of Fish n’ Chip shops, they serve them in paper cones, schcrummmmmmtious x

        • It was quite salty – rather like beef jerky, if I remember correctly! Must have been nearly half a century ago. I prefered the crystallised water chestnuts.
          The surstrumming, .hmmm. Somewhat inebriated to start with. For some reason my father took a can home and we had it in the garden shed for some years until they moved house! Newby, a warning to you, never pick up rusty cans in carparks on the Sussex coast

      • My grandparents, from Somerset, used to eat snails collected from the Mendip Hills – tradition says the Romans introduced the edible snails (they had huge lead mines there) 2000 years ago. My Scottish aunts used to make Black Pudding every year when the annual pig was killed – it’s a sausage made of blood. My grandfather only ate proper Cheddar Cheese that had live maggots in it. My Scottish grandfather was a gamekeeper so game had to be hung until it dropped (i.e decomposed!) My brother once had a hippopotamus steak – said it tasted of fatty, chewy, fish. My father turned our pet turtle into soup – one of my first memories! No wonder I’m mainly vegetarian.

        • black pudding, my father ate it some times on sunday mornings with eggs. the smell coming from it is disgusting and will definitively wake you up.

          poor turtle 😦

        • I once went into a meat market in Spain. They were selling great gobs of clotted blood to people!!!! I never went into a Spanish meat market again!

        • Hi

          Snails : Ok with garlic and butter
          Cheese : any type (I’m french) but no maggots please.
          Black pudding : of course. As a main dish with cooked apples
          Frogs legs (I couldn’t avoid it -;) ). Not as common as one would think but OK.
          Oysters : anytime
          Tripes : can be good too
          Andouilette : sausage made with the small intestine of pork
          Sapper’s apron : made with a beefs stomach (it is a dish from Lyons)

        • Poor Turtle indeed x
          I’m a black pudding fan I’m afraid, but I can see the problem 🙂
          In Northern Ireland they have white pudding, it’s lovely, but I dread to think what it’s made of x

        • The only raw fish i have tried was not really fish but scallop. I caught it while boat fishing with my husband. The skipper said they tasted really good raw. I was daft enough to try it, after all I couldn’t let him think every woman was a wimp. I tried a small piece then declined the rest which the skipper promply munched with an expression of great delight on his face. Erm no, raw food unless fruit of vegetable is definitely not for me. 😦

        • In Spain I once was offered raw sea urchin by a fisherman. He picked it up from the sea, opened it with a knife and smiling gave me a piece of the yolk-like content. Guess what? It was delicious and it ate it all…

    • No worries Carlos. 😀 I guess Australia is relieved that I didn’t emigrate there 30 years ago 😀 ( My ex got cold feet at the last minute).
      Snails are OK I have a recipe here for an omlette made with Cabbage white caterpillars…. When you are hungry, really starving, anything is acceptable. I remember eating whale meat rissoles after the war when meat was rationed.

      • Grosssssss, my daughter and I both fighting anorexia and now I wouldn’t eat even if I were hungry. BLECH!!!

        • Bring your daughter to the Búrfell BBQ, it should fix things, it will be loads of normall food, perhaps a hat or two being BBQed if I loose my bet.
          Just don’t go downwind to the three gents sitting with a strange can happily eating and you will be fine 🙂
          It is just me, Alan and OldCowboy going for the surströmming.


      • …and fried chitterlings – (same source as andouilette sausages). You can eat all a pig except its squaek.
        Can’t stand tripe and onions though. Bleughhh!

  23. I am not sure if this has yet been placed here, but I found it interesting. Translation is my own, so no guarantees, but I hope, it is better than Giggle. 🙂
    From Diario de Avisos, 9th of January 2012

    Kenji Nogami affirms that the eruptive submarine processes in Japan and El Hierro are similar

    The eruptive submarine processes in Japan and the Canary island El Hierro are similar, acc. to what has explained Kenji Nogami, doyen of the Technical Institute of Tokio and scientific advisor of the Japanese government re. submarine eruptions.

    Kenji Nogami explained this during a press conferences together with the director of the Vocanlogic Institute of the Canaries (Involcan), Nemesio Pérez, and the President of the Cabildo of El Hierro,
    Alpidio Armas, and declared that the decoloration of the waters of the Mar de Las Calmas would prove the stability of the eruptive process and not a posteruptive one as had been thought before,

    He stated that the eruptive phase could have a duration from up to 2 years, acc. to the observacions carried out par Nogami re. submarine volcanoes in Japan and the similarity between them and the volcano of El Hierro.

    In this sense, Nogami explained that the risk for the population in this moment of the eruptive phase would be minimal, due to the depth of the location of the eruptive vent (around 150 m).

    He added that to represent a risk for the population, it would have to reach less than 20 m of water column on its surface, the moment when it would enter into the explosive phase and that in the case of submarine eruptions in Japan, this had involved columns of up to 400 m of gases and pyroclastic waves from up to 1 km distance from the eruptive vent, which would be a scenario that would be predictible with enough warning time, explained Nogami.

    During their scientific flight on saturday, Kenji Nogami and the scientists of Involcan observed the presence of balloons and globes of lava of big diameter, some of them of more than 2 m, and proved that the termic difference re. the surface environment of the waters affected by the eruption of El Hierro was up to 4.9 °C, higher than in last month.

    Kenji Nogami asegura que los procesos eruptivos submarinos de Japón y El Hierro son similares
    Diario de Avisos, enero 9,

    Los procesos eruptivos submarinos de Japón y de la isla canaria de El Hierro son similares, según ha explicado hoy Kenji Nogami, catedrático del Instituto Tecnológico de Tokio y asesor científico del Gobierno japonés en materia de erupciones submarinas.

    Kenji Nogami hizo esta afirmación en una rueda de prensa junto al director del Instituto Vulcanológico de Canarias (Involcan), Nemesio Pérez, y el presidente del Cabildo de El Hierro, Alpidio Armas, y aseguró que la decoloración de las aguas del Mar de Las Calmas denota la estabilidad de la fase eruptiva y no poseruptiva como se pensaba hasta ahora.

    Afirmó que la fase eruptiva podría tener una duración que va desde horas hasta dos años, según las observaciones realizadas por Nogami en volcanes submarinos en Japón y la similitud que hay con el volcán de El Hierro.

    En este sentido Nogami explicó que el riesgo para la población en este momento de la fase eruptiva es mínimo, debido a la profundidad de la boca eruptiva (en torno a 150 metros).

    Añadió que para representar un riesgo para la población tendría que alcanzar cotas inferiores a 20 metros de columna de agua en su superficie, momento en el que entraría en fase explosiva y que, en el caso de las erupciones submarinas de Japón, ha conllevado columnas de hasta 400 metros de gases y oleadas piroclásticas de hasta 1 kilómetro de distancia respecto al foco eruptivo, siendo este un escenario predecible con suficiente tiempo de antelación, explico Nogami.

    Tras hacer el sábado pasado un vuelo de reconocimiento, Kenji Nogami y científicos de Involcan observaron la presencia de balones o globos de lava de gran tamaño, algunos de ellos de más de dos metros, y comprobaron que la diferencia térmica en el ambiente superficial de las aguas afectadas por la erupción submarina de El Hierro ha llegado a ser de 4.9 grados centígrados, registros superiores a los del mes pasado.

    En este particular, Nemesio Pérez, aseguró que las diferencias de temperatura reflejadas en el ambiente superficial de las aguas marinas afectadas por la erupción submarina reflejan un importante flujo de calor como consecuencia de la actividad eruptiva y permiten ser una herramienta adicional para monitorizar la evolución del proceso eruptivo.


      • Only 20 meters of water column? No one else seems to think that. 100, 50-60 is what I have read. Only 1 Km distance? Other authorities think that 2.5 is achievable. I am not an expert, but I still think that the coast will be vulnerable. Or, no one, even experts, know what to expect. This is…frustrating…well, put a white picket fence around it!

  24. I was able to take many REM pictures of samples from the floaters today. Now i need a way to show some of them to you, because my Flickr-acount is not yet a Pro account and i cant upload more images. Hm…..

        • from the faq for anyone looking for a picture host.

          how much space, size, bandwidth.

          You have an unlimited amount of space for uploading your files. ImageShack should be considered a ‘media hosting’ website, not a ‘file storage’ website.
          Each image you upload must be less than 5 megabytes in size, 10 megabytes for premium users. If it is greater than that amount, your image will be optimized for the Internet use.

          imageShack allows unlimited bandwidth for images, videos, and slideshows when viewed from our landing page, as well as unlimited bandwidth for registered users. ImageShack may at any time enforce its policies on bandwidth if an image is in violation of our Terms of Service, for instance, if it is abusive or used to spam.

          how long available

          If you are registered, your files will be available forever. If you are not registered, any file that you upload will continue to be available if it is accessed by anyone at least once per year.

  25. I asked yesterday for a rebellion of spanish scientists.
    Well… Today we hadn´t this rebellion but there are a rebellion of the people of Hierro attacking the IGN facebook.
    They are asking to IGN to control the vibrations they are feeling in other parts of the island.
    I dont know if these vibrations will be the typical vibration like an airplane turbine, like a jet.

    Time ago, miss López (IGN) said they had a lot of work because they had to research all these reports of the people. And she said that in many ocasion these were false reports.

    Oh my love… miss López…

    All these things are not dued by bad intention of people…
    All these fears, rumors, speculations (I am not saying these were false reports), well, all these fears, rumors, speculations are dued by the bad information…
    People is not guilty of their fears… Pevolca is the guilty of the fear…
    Their bet is avoid the information which could cause fears…
    And this lack of information is the cause of fears…

    • Well, that’s weird. Of course, there are always people who make up stuff for fun. But, all of them? Are there continuous intermittent vibrations occuring? Is that what the population is reporting? How many reports have come in? What the heck…

  26. Today, from Canarias7, local media.

    The underwater eruption of La Restinga three months old today amid a degassing phase stronger by what happened. The force of the gases the volcano is venting to the surface is throwing hundreds of steaming rocks. Experts do not know how long will the process.
    Nobody knows how long it can last the underwater eruption of El Hierro. Today marks three months since the magma broke the crust about 1,000 meters deep and more than two kilometers from La Restinga and scientists and Research Council (CSIC), nor the experts volcanological Institute of the Canaries (non-tip), not even the world’s leading expert on volcanoes, Japanese Kenji Nogami, Professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology and scientific advisor to the Government most of Japan are able to determine how long.

    Carmen Lopez, the head of National Geographic Institute (IGN) this week will be monitoring the volcano from the Permanent Care Center of La Restinga, claimed yesterday that the eruptive process is still active and, moreover, is three weeks in one of his most important stages of degassing. This significant presence of gases “that have a very large thrust capable of taking large rocks at the surface” is “compatible” said Lopez, with the decline of all parameters associated with a volcanic eruption.

    The truth is that today all the parameters that accompany the submarine eruption of La Restinga are about to be at levels prior to July 2011, when IGN seismographs started recording seismic activity unusual in El Hierro. Since then, they have located about 12,000 earthquakes.


      • Ah, I loved that poem!




        IT was six men of Indostan
        To learning much inclined,
        Who went to see the Elephant
        (Though all of them were blind),
        That each by observation
        Might satisfy his mind.


        The First approached the Elephant,
        And happening to fall
        Against his broad and sturdy side,
        At once began to bawl:
        “God bless me!—but the Elephant
        Is very like a wall!”


        The Second, feeling of the tusk,
        Cried:”Ho!—what have we here
        So very round and smooth and sharp?
        To me ‘t is mighty clear
        This wonder of an Elephant
        Is very like a spear!”


        The Third approached the animal,
        And happening to take
        The squirming trunk within his hands,
        Thus boldly up and spake:

        “I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
        Is very like a snake!”


        The Fourth reached out his eager hand,
        And felt about the knee.
        “What most this wondrous beast is like
        Is mighty plain,” quoth he;
        “‘T is clear enough the Elephant
        Is very like a tree!”


        The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
        Said: “E’en the blindest man
        Can tell what this resembles most;
        Deny the fact who can,
        This marvel of an Elephant
        Is very like a fan!”


        The Sixth no sooner had begun
        About the beast to grope,
        Than, seizing on the swinging tail
        That fell within his scope,
        “I see,” quoth he, “the Elephant
        Is very like a rope!”


        And so these men of Indostan
        Disputed loud and long,
        Each in his own opinion
        Exceeding stiff and strong,
        Though each was partly in the right,
        And all were in the wrong!


        So, oft in theologic wars
        The disputants, I ween,
        Rail on in utter ignorance
        Of what each other mean,
        And prate about an Elephant
        Not one of them has seen!

        • Newby, thank you so much for this poem! I read the story once long ago and never found it again when I needed it. But now I have it and will store it in a safe place!

    • Something appears to be lost in translation –

      If they are sure magma broke the crust 1km down and 2km off La Restinga, that is odd. The crust is supposed to be a lot deeper. Also there were no / few EQs in that spot.

      De-gasing that can now / still chuck out large rocks would appear to have a lot of pressure behind it. And there was a lot of suphur in the recent pictures.

      And as Geolurking says, graphically, the tremor is still higher than before the eruption started.

      But I would agree that the eruption is probably in an important phase – but which?

  27. “The truth is that today all the parameters that accompany the submarine eruption of La Restinga are about to be at levels prior to July 2011, when IGN seismographs started recording seismic activity unusual in El Hierro. Since then, they have located about 12,000 earthquakes.”

    Really? REALLY?

  28. M 7.3, off the west coast of northern Sumatra

    Date: Tuesday, January 10, 2012 18:37:01 UTC
    Wednesday, January 11, 2012 12:37:01 AM at epicenter
    Depth: 29.10 km (18.08 mi)

  29. Hi Geolurking.
    My love, the chief of IGN López could be right in spirit.

    Many times we are worng thinking what we sea at the surface is the true and thr true is under water althoug in many ocasions it wasn´t reflect at sea surface.
    For me the maxium of seismic activity liberated in one only day was november 11th.
    Perhaps now we are seeing the way downstairs…

    And many of the phenomenos we see today are caused by feedback between eruption(magma,gases) and seismic energy.
    The biggest problem is how long will be this actual phase that they call “stability”

    • Carlos says:
      January 10, 2012 at 19:31

      “… the chief of IGN López could be right in spirit…”

      Right in spirit does not give you pass to make erroneous statements and expect someone to believe them.

      The truth is that today all the parameters that accompany the submarine eruption”

      Not “quake signals”… “all parameters

      If I really wanted to get nasty I would whip out the lateral GPS offsets. Those are also part of “all the parameters.” Funny, I don’t see a wholesale relaxation of the offset.

      There are two possibilities that can explain that.

      1) The large scale shift that the GPS stations have experienced are now permanent.
      2) The stress on the crust from the magma intrusion is still present.

      Notice that “about to be at levels prior to July 2011” is not one of the option. Why? Because it’s demonstrably false.

      • I have no problem with Ms Lopez.

        I do have a problem with inane statements that fly in the face of observable fact.

        That she is going to La Restinga in order to monitor it is a good thing. However it does bring up a question.

        Why now? What was wrong with IGN or whoever, putting researchers on the ground back in October?

    • that took me to my own album 🙂
      try selecting all images and on the right hand side of the images there is a button “Create Album” that will bring you to a new page with links to the album (also right side of the screen)

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