VC Sunday Special

Last night the inhabitants of El Hierro were shaken by a series of earthquakes again, but all calmed down after an hour or so and the earthquakes were still rather deep.

IGN Station CTAB IGN Station CHIE

Our faithfull commenter DFMorvan frequently adds plots to his place:
The last video he uploaded to Youtube shows the density of the quakes till yesterday afternoon so it does not include last nights show.

We are still waiting what El Hierro has stored for us. And while we are waiting, i will try to explain the menu on Volcanocafe a little. But before that, here are the winners of the friday riddles by AlanC!

Henri le Revenant got Chiastolite a variation of Andalusite and Talla and Carl? got Swedenborgite! ( We need to ask AlanC again because Carl claims he did not earn a point.)
Here are 2 images of those minerals:

Chiastolite Swedenborgite

When Spica was made admin, i started resorting and renaming the menu  and tried to stick with terms which would suit a coffe shack or a bar in a pirates ship. As long as I find, people here do not really make a lot of use of the information provided by VC, i will now explain, what you can find where, without having to use Google.
We will continue on to collect usefull links, papers and webcams, so please leave a comment if you have something you think is important, best on the page or post where it should be added.

Home: Thats the place where all new posts show up and where you end up when you only go to This is the most frequented place.
Welcome to Volcanocafe: was posted by Carl when the place first opened, you can find the idea behind all of this there, as well as some rules.
Treasury: This was started by me to help sorting the different topics.

It is a drop down menu, as you see.

International treasures: gives a list of vocano observatories outside Europe. Things are being added as they come up. I am not trying to collect all avaiable links worldwide, just those were some  action is going on or is to be expected. Trying to have “all” would require checking tons of links ever so often and i just do not  have the time for this.

Archive sorted by date published: selfexplaining

Archive sorted by topic: selfexplaining. Again i am not trying to store “all” links, same argumentation as above. But this was designed to help finding older posts, for whatever reason.

Wonder what Bob is up to: Gives links, and papers to monitor or understand what is going on around El Hierro better.

Wonder what is going on in Iceland: Same as above, but this time with links and papers for Iceland.

Wonder whats going on in Santorini: Here you can find links and papers if Santorini should decide to be more active again.

Italian Job: Tons of Etna webcams and links to observatories and other pages regarding volcanic action in Italy. ( This page really needs more dedicated work by me )

In case some action starts to happen in some other place, and we on VC watch it closely, another menu point will be added here, so not to overwhelm the other archive pages.
Gems: Another drop down menu, but with only 2 bars at the moment.

If you klick Gems directly, you end upon a page with beautiful images our readers took from webcams.

Gems without any relation to volcanoes: Here you could find how to change your avatar or how to make a video or a snapshot  from a webcam or how to add a smiley
Library: Must-read books for volcanophiles can be found here.
Crow`s nest: Has 2 bars in the drop down menu.

Volcano webcams: selfexplaining

Auroralinks: Is here because so many on VC love to watch auroras.
OT Regulars table: OT ( Off Topic )  posts goin here. Originally i wanted them to appear only in here and not in home, but i could not figure out how to get this fixed.
Burfell Dalek BBQ: Comments on the planning of a BBQ in front of a Heklacam went in there.This will be renamed or trashed soon.  We could make it a place where people could arrange meetings like said BBQ or volcano-tours? What do you think?

I am hoping you will contribute to development ofthe blog and leave comments with links. I am always up for constructive criticism so just let me know if you have ideas.



868 thoughts on “VC Sunday Special

    • A good summary of events. However I cannot agree with the somewhat scathing criticism of the emergency actions. yes it was chaotic and Yes, the emergency services were not 100% organised BUT….. In the circumstances then as now nobody really knew or knows what course these events will take. Better to err on the side of caution and evacuate., as if the outcome had been a closer to shore or on shore the saving of njury or loss of life is more important than not being politically dynamic. It was really common sense to move people out of perceived harm’s way.
      Yes! It was a small volcanic event but the author wrote in such a way that I interpreted his comment as belittling the people and the Island. His final statement is very ambiguous.
      “What would the outcome be if a volcanic eruption,
      instead of taking place off the small island of El Hierro,
      occurred in the densely populated islands of Tenerife
      or Gran Canaria?”
      I think it would have been better if he asked “What if the volcanic eruption had occurred in the populated area of El Hierro?”

      • I agree, and I fully believe that the evacuation the first time around was fully justified.
        I just hope that they will evacuate if there is increased signs closing in on an area onland.
        This paper might just prevent that.
        Better safe than sorry.

      • Agree that they must ask what would have happened if the eruption had occurred on land in El Hierro or even closer to the shore. But they are right to question what would happen if an eruption happened on one of the other islands and make sure that there are contingency plans (including evacuation, if necessary).

      • However I cannot agree with the somewhat scathing criticism of the emergency actions.

        I imagine that this and other criticism from peer groups in Spain’s scientific community is partly responsible for us now tossing praise at how they are acting now.

        My guess is that something/someone/somegroup, lit a fire under somebody(ies) ass.

  1. Hi

    I have to make a correction (sorry for that), but I made a mistake a few days ago when copying code. SO the results of the last 2 das are wrong.

    Here is the corrected video.

    In a way it explains some things. As you will see the direction of the swarm’s focus goes back to Orchilla (instaed of going to the south east).

    Again I am sorry for the mistake. :blush:

    Fixed by Spica

  2. Fracture Modes.

    Mode I (Tension, Opening)
    Mode II (In-Plane Shear, Sliding)
    Mode III (Out-Of-Plane Shear, Tearing)

    Fracture Mode I toughness

    Granite			0.11	0.41
    Dolerite			>0.41
    Gabbro				>0.41
    Basalt				>0.41
    Sandstone		0.027	0.041
    Shale			0.027	0.041
    Limestone		0.027	0.041
    Gneiss			0.11	0.41
    Schist			0.005	0.027
    Slate			0.027	0.041

    • From that… it seems that in some regions, there is easily 100 times less energy required for the magma to move through the strata.

      Depending on where it’s at.

      • Would that mean that we wouldn’t necessarily see earthquakes when the magma is breaking through these strata?

        • I seem to remember from last eruption phase in El Hierro that there was something like a “mute” region.

  3. Re Carl’s musings & follow-on comments. As far as I’m aware, there are only two parameters to consider:

    a) Inflow
    b) Outflow

    Either can be in the on or off mode which leaves us with four possibilities:

    1. a) in on, b) is off. Should result in two observable phenomena – displacement (uplift) and eq/tremor

    2. both a) and b) are on. Unless a) = b), we should see either uplift or subsidence depending on which is the greater. Observable phenomena – outflow (eruption) and tremor

    3. a) is off, b) is on. Observable phenomena – subsidence and weak outflow (minor to micro-eruption)

    4. both a) and b) are off. Observable phenomena – nothing! Neither uplift nor subsidence, no earthquakes and no tremor.

    Right now, the observations fit case 4, which means that we have witnessed an episode of magmatic emplacement, a magmatic intrusion – unless a) is turned on again of course. >No need to invoke mystical processes whereby magma disappears or goes back deep into the mantle, leaving no evidence of their passing. 😉

  4. As stated before. The argument and sour grapes comments that started earlier today, and I said was done with, is done with. I edited away 12 comments now.
    Do not pull it up again.


  5. Just took a quick look at the quakes and noticed these shallow ones.
    20:32 27.7208 -18.0967 no stated depth 2.3 mag SW Frontera
    21:05 27.7105 -18.0869 no stated depth 2.0mag SW Frontera

    • I checked the 2.3M quake. It was picked up by 4 stations that are all of them in a narrow corridor/line. And one of the was almost on top of it. And with 3 of them in a line they only get X,Y coordinates, so 2D it is.
      To compound the problem the strongest recording is omitted since the computer has deemed it to be to strong for a standard model. And the weakest could not get a clear reading. So, we are basically on 2 stations.
      If I then retake the CJUL I can do a bit of magic and say that it is in the 20km region, but that is about as close as it ever will come.

    • This means the same as Volcanocafe / Carl (?) is stating above: IMO eg. is setting in depth 0.00 when they don’t know where it happened, and these are normally the low quality quakes they take out of the list later. 🙂

  6. Have you ever wondered why this place have so many Dragons (Moderators).
    Well, it is not due to the commenters in here. Yes, I growled a bit today and edited away some stuff. But so far I have not baned anyone, and the few times I have had to growl a bit the problem has solved itself more or less.
    No, the reason is really spam. The amount of it is stunning. In June there where more spam than legitimate comments.
    Spam 6,329
    Comments 5,046
    Missed Spam 0
    Wrongly spam-boxed comments 5

    Just so you all know.

    • I yam what I yam and dats all dat I yam.

      I missed the brouhaha from earlier… but noticed that the mention of some loon stuff came up. As long as what ever it is is taken for the entertainment value that it offers…and that it really needs a measure of “realness” in order to glean something useful.. well, it’s moot.

      So… why do I even stick my two sense in?

      ‘Cuz the other night I couldn’t sleep. I found myself listening to AM Coast to Coast. Something I do from time to time. It seems that the show was about some guys idea.. was that CERN had some nefarious reason other than searching for the Higgs Bosun… something that “proven” to exists at the Five Sigma level. (ie, 1 in 1,744,277 that they are wrong.)

      His idea? CERN, with it’s rings inside of rings, with massive power input, was intended to open a wormhole to somewhere. “Proof?” That’s what they did in Hellboy, it’s also what they did in several other movie and story genre.

      …. okay…. thats your proof?

      A shot of whiskey later and I no longer had a problem dozing off.

        • Interestingly, the term hissy fit is one my mother used quite often. Not a common term normally—used more in the region i grew up in, the US southeastern Applachian mountains—a micro cultural area in itself. If you don’t mind, my question is your origin? Interesting that I find the term used.

          • Hi Maggiemom! I’ve just googled this as hissy-fit is a term I picked up about 10 years ago and use quite a bit as it’s so good at describing a particular type of outburst. (My other favourite is “handbags at dawn” – do you have this in the States?) You are right that it appears to have come from the American South so it must have come to us in Britain through TV or film use – don’t know which one specifically. Ursh is in Australia so I guess gets the same influences! Language is amazing! 🙂

          • I live in the Midwest (Illinois) and I’ve heard this term as long as I can remember. A very long time!

        • Thanks Talla for the info! Know my mother used it as a term for my little ‘fits’, ha! Mostly when my impatience got the best of me. Never ever heard handbags at dawn-will look that one up. Ever heard caniption fit?
          My interest, being as how I never have known an Englishman, is that the dialect spoken way back in the mountains of Appalachia I have always heard is a true ‘Queen’s English’ from way back, brought by early settlers. Due to the remoteness of the homesteads way back in our mtns the dialect survived far longer there. If I had said that same sentence as a child I would have said. . .homesteads way back yonder in the mtns. So maybe Ursh’s use originated from old English too—as Australia was settled by England? If I remember my history correctly. Now I am again finding a subject to read up on, all because of two little words found here! Isn’t it intriguing?

          • No, Maggiemom, I’ve never heard of a caniption fit! I think Handbags At Dawn came in around the time of Maggie Thatcher, when she told one of her Ministers off it was called a Handbagging! Pistols at dawn is the phrase from the old duelling days, so handbags at dawn implies a spat (there’s another good word!) between two not-very-good fighters. When America was settled the dialects of the English, Welsh and Scots were even more pronounced than they are now, so it depends on what region the original settlers of Appalachia came from. I have heard some people from a small island off the New England coast speak on the radio and they sounded exactly like someone from the West of England. My mother was from Bristol and their dialect still used “thou” and “thee” but very clipped so “You couldn’t see me for dust” came out as ” ‘Ee casn’t see I fur dus”. (Literally: Thee canst not see). There have been a huge number of incomers into Bristol so you don’t hear ‘Bristle’ spoken much nowadays but the accent, rather than dialect, has remained. At school we wore ‘daps’ (trainers) on our feet and snow ‘pitched’ (landed) on the ground. The nearby Berkley Castle is called ‘Barclay’ now, but the Berkley in California retains the upper-class pronounciation of ‘Berkly’. My father was from the Trossachs in Scotland but Americans always mistook him for a very upper-class person from Boston! 😀

          • Caniption fit is same as hissy fit basically. Handbags at dawn then is just the feminine ‘duel’ with words, ha! I like that. My mountains mostly settled by Scotch-Irish with some English and German thrown in. I continue to research! Thanks for your input!

        • It did not help how they where represented in Dan Browns book Angels & Demons.
          After that CERN has gotten a rather odd reputation among the conspirationalist groups out there.
          To me that book is the second worst book scientifically written. The worst one is of course Stephen Baxters Flood. Cheech…

          • Oh Rats Carl, now I have to read that book! How can I possibly not read the worst book ever written. 😉 I am a book addict on now will feel deprived if I miss it.

          • You are going to cry over Stephen Baxter’s novel.
            In it he describes how the sea level is raised by 9 kilometers through water squirting out of the MAR. For some reason he believes that there are ginormous reservois of unbound water below the crust. And the best thing is that he says that it is scientifically proven as a fact through sonographic scans…
            It is so bad…

    • While I’m off the rails here about CERN… something that they did that perked my ears up…. and made me giggle a bit, was the CLOUD experiment.

      They shot particles at cosmic ray energies into a pure “atmosphere” and measured the nucleation that the particles either did or did not produce… this was in an effort to deal with Henrik Svensmark’s cloud nucleation idea. That Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) could increase the occurrence of clouds (and increase the Earth’s albedo) during periods of low solar activity. Increase the albedo, and the less solar radiation reaches the deep parts of the atmosphere and ground.

      From what I understand… the scientists were allowed to release the results but not allowed to elaborate on it very much. (odd) The genreal conclusion was that yes, GCRs do increase nucleation. (seeding of condensation that becomes clouds) But you had to have ammonia available to enhance/augment the process. Show stopper eh? Not quite. The level of ammonia required was well below the normal atmospheric content of it. In other words, there was more than enough ammonia to enhance the process.

      Now the snicker… ever hear of a Wilson Cloud chamber?

      In Wilson’s original chamber the air inside the sealed device was saturated with water vapor, then a diaphragm is used to expand the air inside the chamber (adiabatic expansion). This cools the air and water vapor starts to condense. When an ionizing particle passes through the chamber, water vapor condenses on the resulting ions and the trail of the particle is visible in the vapor cloud. Wilson, along with Arthur Compton, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his work on the cloud chamber.

      I wonder how much money was spend in CERN’s endeavor…

      • I am not sure about some of those ….all I know is that one fights bushfires here in Australia and 9 times out of ten, by the time you mop up and go home you get soaked, literally from rain by the time you get home, nature is best

    • Yes, impressive statistics overall, million visitors, fifty thousand comments and site only nine months or so (since October last year was it ?) Congratulations master Carl.

      • In part… It’s dye to Big Think and Wired having such screwed up and bloated forum software. Many of us are refugees from Eruptions… though we still go there and to Jon’s blog from time to time.

        • And thank you too Master Lurk. My good fortune you be a refugee! 😉
          Used to have Jon´s blog in favorites but do not visit there but occasionally. He really should make effort in writing better english and speculate a bit less. Sometime check at ER but do monitor myself and do not relay on other bloggers (save here, of course!)

          • I only made one comment on Jon’s blog, and that was the day the s#@$ hit the fan, and the mass evacuation happened. Thanks to all of you for what you contribute.

        • Yepp, we should all be fully well knowing that this place mainly exist due to disqus and Erik consistently having moved to ever more odd forums.
          I read every single article he writes, and will do so untill the day he has to many kids to have time for us.
          I also check a few other forums almost daily.

  7. Hey guys I found something worth of my day (not even worth of my day but rather my year)!

    I found this digging just close to my house, 3 meters deep, with perfect ash layers recorded. It is a fairly big area, about 10 meter per 10 meter square hole, so it’s just perfect for me to study which ash layers have felt here in southwest Iceland. Its the perfect soil profile showing the record of the major Icelandic eruption of the past centuries. This being for the ash that falls here in south Iceland, near Selfoss and Geysir.

    I took plenty pics, and I came home because I am feeling hungry and cold (it’s a cold windy bright night)

    I could see the major ash bands, and some minor ash bands. Clearly there are two thick white layers, some 5cm thick, which are probably Hekla. Also are some black layers (probably Katla) and brown layers (probably Grimsvotn or Bardarbunga), and also some orangeish layers (which I think it’s the red ash from the local Grimsnes volcano). I can’t see that ash from other volcanoes could have fallen here (surely not Oraefajokull, Askja, and likely also not from Hengill or Krisuvik)

    The colors should be straighforward because Katla ash is also very dark, Grimsvotn is usually brown (at least it is recorded as such in Vatnajokull), Veidivotn I know it was a brownish, because I saw another soil profile in Skaftafell national park, in the southeast; and Hekla is usually white pumice.

    The challenhe is now guessing which eruptions they were, based in their depth (which corresponds to their age), but as we know some ash eruptions of these volcanoes drift to other locations depending on prevailing winds. But I am lucky because there is an Icelandic paper of a soil profile done nearby, which says which eruptions of Hekla and Katla deposited ash here (but that paper says nothing of Grimsvotn, that at least in 2011 deposited a brown ash here).

    I will keep you updated of my research work. Exciting stuff!

      • Thanks Geolurking!
        I will have a look.

        I am using also the post of Jon where he wrote the short history of Icelandic eruptions, because he mentions where did the ash went in most cases. This is useful to know which eruptions of Hekla and Katla went in my direction. By the color, it is quite easy to determine which volcano it is, but the order it is a mess, there is just so many eruptions of these two volcanoes.

        • It might also help to take a look at the National Museum in Reykjavík (next to Háskóli Íslands), the have an excavated soil column there with a lot of the ash layers indicated. 🙂

        • Some data from:

          The spatial distribution of Holocene cryptotephras in north-west Europe since 7 ka: implications for understanding ash fall events from Icelandic eruptions.
          Ian T. Lawson a,*, Graeme T. Swindles a, Gill Plunkett b, David Greenberg
          Quaternary Science Reviews 41 (2012) 57e66

          Tephra name, Reported date (cal yrs), source,Geochemical type, p-value
          Hekla, 1947 AD, 1947, H Hekla 11, Dacitic-Andesitic, e
          Askja 1875 AD 1875 H Askja 13 Rhyolitic 0.000*
          Hekla 1510 AD 1510 H Hekla 13 Dacitic-Andesitic 0.003*
          PMG-5/MOR-T2 c. AD 1400 I (Chambers et al., 2004) Jan Mayen? 3 Trachyte e
          Öræfajökull 1362 AD 1362 H Öræfajökull 9 Rhyolitic 0.181
          Hekla 1104 AD 1104 H Hekla 21 Rhyolitic 0.001*
          Landnám AD 871  2 GRIP ice core (Grönvold et al., 1995) Veiðivötn/Torfajökull 3 Basaltic e
          Tjørnuvík 9th century AD I (Hannon et al., 2001) Hekla 4 Andesitic-Rhyolitic e
          AD 860 B AD 776e887 W (Pilcher et al., 1995; Wastegård et al., 2003) ? 20 Rhyolitic 0.006*
          AD 860 A AD 776e887 W (Pilcher et al., 1995; Wastegård et al., 2003) ? 5 Rhyolitic 0.111
          GA4-85 c. AD 700e800 I (Hall and Pilcher, 2002) Katla? 4 Dacitic-Trachydacitic e
          Glen Garry 16e260 BC W (Barber et al., 2008) ? 26 Dacitic-Rhyolitic 0.000*
          BMR-190 705e585 BC W (Plunkett et al., 2004) Hekla 7 Dacitic 0.000*
          Microlite 755e680 BC W (Plunkett et al., 2004) ? 20 Rhyolitic 0.003*
          GB4-150 (wSILK-UN) 800e758 BC W (Plunkett et al., 2004) Katla 8 Dacitic-Trachydacitic 0.003*
          Hekla 3 1087e1006 BC W (van den Bogaard et al., 2002) Hekla 13 Dacitic-Rhyolitic 0.008*
          Hekla-S/Kebister 1800e1750 BC W (Wastegård et al., 2008) Hekla 19 Dacitic-Rhyolitic 0.002*
          Hekla 4 2395e2279 BC W (Pilcher et al., 1995) Hekla 44 Rhyolitic 0.135
          Mjáuvøtn A c. 3550 BC I (Wastegård et al., 2001) ? 3 Basaltic e
          Hoy 4620e4230 BC R (Dugmore et al., 1995) Torfajökull 3 Rhyolitic e
          Lairg B 4774e4677 BC W (Pilcher et al., 1996) Torfajökull 10 Rhyolitic 0.093
          Lairg A 4997e4902 BC W (Pilcher et al., 1996) Hekla 13 Rhyolitic 0.032

          If you want i can mail you the article (or upload it to volcanocafe??)

    • This sound soooo interesting, could you please send pictures! Research right next door. On the other hand, if that much ash came so often, it might come again, not tomorrow but…
      If microscopic images could help identifying the different layers,… that could be done, if you wish.

    • You forgot a volcano that should have dumped in quite a lot of crap into your garden in the deeper layers, and that is Vatnafjöll.
      Before Hekla kicked in the Turbo-overdrive and compressor it was the volcano that was most active in the region. Also there should of course be a few Eyjafjallajökull eruption in there.

    • Well that’ not fair ! you get tephra in your garden, Carl’s got a lode of minerals in his backyard. All I’ve got is some mushroom spots in a nearby forest ! (but boletus edulis, yum!)

      • And for those who are not good in latin that would be the common Stensopp in Swedish, and Penny Bun in English. And since everybody wish to know, the name is Çörek mantarı in Turkish… 🙂

        • It is of course also known as เห็ดพอร์ชินี and Βωλίτης ο εδώδιμος.

        • You’re beginning to sound like the Herb Master of Minas Tirrith, to whom Elessar replied:

          “I care not whether you say now asëa aranion or kingsfoil, so long as you have some.”

        • I had to google this too and I think in English they are nowadays mostly just known as porcini mushrooms, from Italian. At least that’s how they are sold in shops, dried (never heard or seen “penny bun” anywhere). I guess this is due to Jamie Oliver & other chefs who use them in their recipes…

  8. Other this is what I found: two thin black layers, at 10cm and 20cm (the first one is probably from Katla 1918, the second is unknown but likely from Katla; it is very thin). Between them, there is a whitish band, probably from Hekla, some 200-300 years old (could be most likely Hekla 1845 because the ash went westwards, but could be also 1766 or 1693). The second black layer is of similar age, could have been Katla 1721, 1755 (less likely, because that ash went to the NE) or even Laki in 1783.

    Then, we have a thick black layer at 30cm deep, which according to the paper I mentioned is probably an eruption of Katla around 1500 (I don’t know which one). Could have been also the eruption of 1179 where ash went to Greenland (westwards).

    Below this, at 35cm there is the first significant white layer (is not mentioned in the paper) but it should be Hekla, probably one eruption around 1100-1400 (and there were big ones at those time). It is unlikely the 1510 big Hekla eruption (which went southwards); rather most likely it is the ash of 1341 (because it went straight westwards in my direction).

    Below there is a big brown ash (at 40cm), just below the first Hekla layer, and is unknown origin but probably Grimsvotn, of estimated age around 1000-1500 years old (unknown eruption). Could actually be the settlers ash of Vatnaöldum around 870 AC.

    Later at 55-60cm deep there is the largest band of all, a thick white one, which is most likely Hekla 3 (because it also shows in the work I mentioned before). This was 2800 years ago. Just above it, there is a fine grey ash layer and another big brown layer, that I have no idea of what they are (should be around 2000 years old)

    Below the second Hekla layer, there is a very broad greyish layer, a broad orangeish layer, a thin white ash, and then a very dark brown layer (very well defines). This is already old stuff, older than 3000 years old, and now I am getting lost here. Some of these broad layers are probably the local Grimsnes eruptions, and there were several of these some 4000-6000 years ago. But it could be other lost eruptions in there as well (probably Hekla 4 or Hekla 5 is in there too). After this there is even more larger layers of orangeish and dark brown material. We are now between 80 and 150cm.

    About a meter below, it’s where the hole floor starts and you find some very old lava rocks, this is almost for sure the interglacial basalt from Lyngdalsheidi (a shield volcano existing here, before Grimsnes).

    • Oh wow! that sounds exciting. Doing layer analysis on dirt cool. Please put the pictures up when you can. Boy I must be a bit weird as this is cool.

      • Hattie Good evening. I am a weirdo too. I would get excited to find this too. Looking at History in frozen order. Magic!
        looking forward to the pictures Irpsit.

        • The fine gray and the brown layer , are they together? Around 2.000 years old? Then it should be Landnámslayer, the Colonisation Ash, Torfajökull and Bárdarbunga / Vatnaöldur.

          • The orangeish material should be Grímsnes volcano. The system has an age of about 7.000 years and contains a lot of iron.

      • I will post the pics today. I just have to run to work now. Later on I post them!

        I will go also again to the site, just before it rains, and measure the cms and the layers more accurately (now that I have more clues about it). Thanks Geolurk, I will check that in Reykjavik, so far I only knew of the ash profile at Skaftafell visitor center.

        • No! Don’t spoil the fun now! Please wait until you have it all identified, then write an article and mail it to Carl. Why? It’s just the kind of stuff mad people such as ourselves want to read about. It harks back to the days of John Brashear, a millwright of Pittsburgh steel mill, whose love of astronomy caused him to teach himself how to grind, polish and figure lenses at which he became so adept that some of his telescopes are in professional use even today.

          • Actually, I agree fully with Henrik!!!

            Don’t make it into comments, email it to me with pickies and we have a nice juicy post instead.

        • So exciting! Having to write an essay on tephrachronology when I did my Degree was one of the things that eventually led me to this site! You don’t mention Laki in your list – did that not produce ash? One of my other essays was on deep stratigraphy so double drooling from me! 🙂 😀

          • The big trouble here is to identify the ash layers. I could write this for a post, but I will not be sure about most ash layers. As I never studied tephrachronology.

            But I know everyone would love to read it, so I will try my best.

  9. OT (or I shouldn’t it be posted here, O Mighty Draconian League?)
    Just heard on TV:
    This week there will be a context, taking pace at Copacabana beach, for the best bar tender in the world. It is the first time in our country, and involves candidates from 40 countries.
    Not exactly the ideal time for Hierro’s magma to arrive – I understand that magma and ethanol do not go together well, my Michelle, in a cocktail. 🙂

    • Good evening Renato. Hey who is representing VC in this contest? It sounds so exotic Copacabana beach and cocktails…. you are a Ray of sunshine in this Dreadul summer here in NW England. Heben Bridge ,a small town near here and a couple of miles from my Daughter’s farm is flooded again third time in asa many weeks. I saw one of My daughter’s friend’s house on TV with water rushing through it. She has 3 small children and what a mess!!!My daughter is helping out with somewhere to stay if neccessary as she lives on the high moors above the town.

      • Let’s hope for less precipitation in august.
        Sorry for them.
        All over the world – always check hazard maps or things like that before you build or buy a house. Municipalities, local, regional or national authorities in many countries have data or studies about flooding areask perimeters with potential geological problems and so on. And look at geological maps: it’s not by chance that you have a plain filled with alluvial sediments or such stuff… The big boulders in your garden have not always been there… Brought by glaciers, of fallen from the wall behind your house? When flooding / a landslide / rockfall occurs it quickly gets terribly messy. Prevent as early as you can. If you have a choice don’t settle down where problems are known. Levees and stuff are nice, but never build to aim for zero-risk. Now look at those hit by that stuff and keep these images in mind.

        • GeLoco, here they don’t seem to care too much. They have built so many houses on flood plain in the South-East of England as that is where people want to come as the weather is usually better. Also they seem to forget that if they keep putting more and more houses in the same area there is no longer the fields available to soak up the water so much more run-off. However when you get a year like this with extreme amounts of precipitation (For the UK that is) the problems soon show up. Seems the planners don’t care about a chance of flooding if it is ONLY every twenty years or so. For the poor people Diana mentioned in Hebden Bridge I think it is the second time in a fortnight! The people down the end of our road are not even in an official flood area but were still nonetheless flooded in the extreme 24 hour downpours we have had this summer. Summer by name not summer by nature.

      • @ Diana/Renato

        Yes, we must be represented. How about this for the Volcanocafe Cocktail entry?

        Take a long glass and fill with equal measures of the following then top up with lemonade:

        Campari (red), Galliano (yellow), Peach Liqueur (orange).

        Now add one tablespoon of black treacle (yuck!!)

        Finally, just before serving, add one tablespoon of bicarbonate of soda and pop in a cocktaill stick with a skewered min,i toy, fluffy sheep on it.

        Now stir vogorously and watch what happens!

        What a disgusting mess and only for those with a sense of humour!

          • @ Renato

            Obviously you would have to make it and put on a show……..

            Describe Etna’s paroxysms as you make it – that should clinch it!

          • 6 and it is only lunch? Or perhaps on a completely different time zone than me…
            *Must remember that I live on a globe*

      • Ray of sunshine?
        The day before yesterday, I went out without an umbrella and got wet to my bones! Cold and fever were the outcomes.
        Now it’s 15°C and forecast are max on the low 20s , which for tropical skins is kind of outrageous!
        But I cannot complain. We had three weeks in a row with strahlend sunshine.
        But I take it as a compliment, thanks!
        You are the solar flare warming up England’s gray heaths!

    • Like always it’s a question of proportions. A very little bit of magma could give you a hot whirlpool, and that’s easy to combine with a cocktail. Or you could heat some water and make tea with rhum – some kind of alpine cocktail… If it’s much magma that coult put on quite a show – step aside and watch. Cocktail-relation in not direct in this case, but you can have one in your hand while watching. As for mixing magma with ethanol, well, Michelle should consider buying some kind of asbestos-skirt… But then everything remains thinkable.
      I personally love OT. It’s the cement in the concrete. And it helps reaching 1 mega of visitors and 50K comments in someting like 7 month… That’s what many don’t want to understand – the net is about clicks. Nearly every click is good (exept for spams, trolls, pole shifters etc.).
      And as we’re OT and read by so many, I’d like to make sure our future lizard masters understand that they are welcome and I will serve them if they make me the leader of Europe. If not, I will kick your green boner’s asses back to the shadow side of mars. And that’s for the lucky ones who don’t end up with my f.cking Estwing between their eyes. OK?! Geeez 2012 is such an exciting year…

  10. I do not know if it is the cold, windy and grey day…
    But I want to shop something like this to prop up my imortal ego.

    • Are you in need Carl?
      You know, Science have developed many technologies you can rely on…
      This is pre-marriage insecurity.
      Relax man. Life is so beautiful… 🙂

      • Nah, it is more a weather thing…
        Whenever the weather grows suitably bad I feel a strange urge to shop something rather useless.

          • I have some down here at the moment, blowing a gale/raining buckets/house shaking, dark/dogs/cats under desk in front of heater and no frost tonight, yahhh

        • Interesting, when the weather is bad I feel a strange urge to shop, not necesarily for something useless but just for something. Then I can never find anything I really want to buy. I must have Scandinavian blood in me somewhere, I did have blonde hair and blue eyes before age took it’s toll on the hair. 🙂

          • Hi Newby! I’m the same – I went shopping on Saturday and bought some pretty useless clothes (but they were in a Sale!). I don’t know why they say retail shopping is down because of the weather – I only go for a random shop when the weather is bad. 🙂 I’m more of the red-headed Scandinavian type (but age has sadly faded it to brown). 🙂

    • Why? The thing is well-nigh useless – conspicuous, unconcealable, heavy to carry , hard to draw and aim, recoil so heavy that you most likely will injure your wrist if ever you fire it.

      If you’re into those stakes, why not this?

      To liven things up, the scale of this thing is so generous (about 1:20) that you could install 6 x 12.7 rifles in the turrets. Make one of Bismarck and it’s 8 x 20 mm automatic cannon. Now that’s bragging rights at the marina!

      • It is more the craftmanship of Zeliska that is the thing.
        His rendition of the Remington loftin a 28mm slug is also something to behold. But in reallity the 0.600 Nitro Express is the end all of powerfull guns since it is the largest possible to actually fire.

        But since people complain about my gun fetish here is som music.

        • Complain? :mrgreen:

          (If you recall “Asterix chèz les Helvetes”, a servant rushes in during the middle of the night:
          – Tribune! Tribune! Le Questeur est Malade!
          – Déja!?!”

          My “complain” is said in exactly the same, gratified manner at such splendid news.)

    • I’m having one of these “VTOL-fantasy” days. When it takes me it usually obsesses me for 3 days to one week.
      Right now the need is even more intense than usually – I utterly need one done and ready to use in order to fight the lizards in december. Need that even more than the Bear Grylls ultimate survival knife…
      I also often suffer the lust to buy big SLR cameras.
      Not talking about highly lifted Jeeps with fattest tires. V8 inside, of course.
      In short terms: I feel with you.

      • Once these last weeks I was even so desperate that I imagined it would be cool to drive around on a Harley V-Rod Muscle. And the interstellar powers united know that I think Harley has a bit of a primitive technology and thus should stay in show rooms. Being cought in a world where you have to be polite to idiots and show civilized behavior sometimes triggers very primitive thoughts.

  11. People from all locations at El Hierro and even from La Gomera are saying this 3,8 quake was the hardest felt, and left the earth oscillating for a long while. (AVCAN)

    • They should have since the attack of the earthquake was much sharper than during the previous two weeks. As I noted above, this was an entirely different type of earthquake.

      • I think it can only happen to me to miss of a magn. 4.5 quake in San Francisco because of using a public transport bus at the time! 😆

  12. Here is a little study i did (with help from Robert from

    “Possible New Insight’s Into The 1222 Syrian Volcanic Eruption”
    An Unnamed volcano is located near the
    Turkey/Syrian border.
    The volcano was reported to have
    erupted sometime in 1222 at a site near
    Killis (Turkey).
    Analysis of satellite imagery by Robert Sommerville revealed the possible eruption site. Detail’s are discussed below.
    The eruption expelled a long Basaltic –
    Andesitic lava flow that runs for around
    716 m. The lava flow fills in a preexisting
    The eruptions came from (possibly) a
    small cinder cone that sits at the head of
    the canyon.
    Judging by the size of the cone and lava
    flow, it seems fair to say that the
    volcano formed in 1222 because of a
    reigonal graben.
    Neumann van Padang M, 1963a. Arabia
    and the Indian Ocean. Catalog of Active
    Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara
    Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 16: 1-64
    Lucas Wilson 2012 (pers. comm)

    Image’s here:!/2012/04/unnamed-syrian-volcanic-field-photos.html

      • Well, good luck.

        The site was slap dab in the middle of the Ayyubid dynasty, The 5th Crusade fracas had just finished up and I’m not sure if any historians (Muslim or Christian or Jew) were able to sit down and write anything. The Golden Bull of 1222 was signed in Hungary and the world… society in general was a friken mess. (like it’s gotten much better)

        Etna and Hekla both had VEI-2 events that year… something that would have been at the forefront of European thoughts at the time rather than a VEI-0 if they had even noticed it.

        At some time during this period, earthquakes rocked the area.

        Damages from two major earthquakes are identified in medieval Al-Marqab citadel (Latin: Margat) in coastal Syria. Built by the Order of St. John (Hospitallers) in the twelfth–thirteenth centuries, the hilltop fortification has masonry walls made with and without mortar, using the opus caementum technology (Roman concrete). V-shaped and U-shaped failures, single-corner and symmetrical corner collapses, and in-plane shifts of ashlar masonry walls are identified and dated by historical and archaeological methods. The azimuth of displacement is NE-SW for the older damages of the Crusader period (A.D. 1170–1285), possibly related to the A.D. 1202 earthquake. A later, NW-SE displacement occurred during the Muslim period (post-1285). The 1202 earthquake produced at least VIII intensity on the MSK scale at Al-Marqab, which is higher than previously considered.

        If it was related to grabben movement, the 1202 quake may have played a part.

        The site is mentioned and referenced to

        SIEBERG, A. (1932): Untersuchungen übar erdbeben und
        bruchscholenbau im Östlichen mittelmeergebiet, Denkschrifften
        der Medizinsch-Naturwissenschaft Gesellschaft
        zu Jena, 18, 161-273.

        In a citation in “The historical earthquakes of Syria: an analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D. ” Sbeinati et al


        The Chronicle of 1234 (13th century A.D.): An anonymous Syriac chronicle written about half a century after the chronicle of Michael the Syrian.
        It is divided into two parts, of which one is devoted to secular history (to 1234) and the other to ecclesiastical history (to 1207).

        So that may be a lead on somebody actually writing about it in first person.

        Now I have to go drive.

        • And we all now wonder what Lurking was talking about, I bet the explanation later will be exciting and have nothing to do with Lucas and his Quest for the list 2011 Eruptions 🙂

          • Never saw a request for 2011 eruptions.

            I saw

            ““Possible New Insight’s Into The 1222 Syrian Volcanic Eruption”
            An Unnamed volcano is located near the Turkey/Syrian border. The volcano was reported to have erupted sometime in 1222 at a site near Killis (Turkey).


            Someone in here … will most likely find it later today.

            I found what I could… now I have to drive. Though an interesting thing came to mind while poking around.

            Mud Volcanoes mainly crop up in continental convergent zones.

            If a mud volcano pops up… does or can the relief of pressure cause decompression melting at the depth from which the water was squeezed… or the strata below it? Could this be a driving mechanism for the itty bitty volcanism in these regions?

    • I think, it was degassing or a hot spring. What do you think, Carl? I remember that we suspected something like this in the vicinity of La Restinga. And this seems to have been directly below the village.

      • It was neither, that is called a blowhole. It is in this case most likely an old lavatube, but it can also be caves and other things, as the waves hit it, it causes an explosive blowback.

        The dead fish are most likely just dead harbour fish, but it could also be pre cooked Bob-fish that has drifted in.

        But, having an old lava tube running like that out into the ocean is not really a good thing. On the other hand, the entire city is build on old lava and schoria, and surrounded by scoria cones. In the long run the question is not if La Restinga will be run over by lava, the question is more if it is going to happen in the next couple of hundred years.

    • gridded is fine, as long as you keep in mind that you are essentially fitting a poly sheet that may or may not reflect the spaces between the data points.

      A better method would be to use Krigging, which allows you to work with the variance from point to point. I haven’t found a clean method to do that with out learning (or re-learning) a whole new language. (R can do it, and I haven’t screwed around with Fortran for years)

      If you can figure out a way to kludge it together in Excel, I’m all ears. Nothing I have found doesn’t cost money.

      • Hi Lurking.

        Thanks for the comments. I have no way to Krig in excel. I will try to play with this new model to see what can be done with changing the parameters. For the pictures shown I’m using a increment of 0.006 °, so a square of about 700 m (give or take). I’ll keep you posted on the new developments. I have maybe found something for Kriging (not in XL) but have not tested it yet.

        • Whats going to happen.. or more specifically what will happen, is that I will wind up rebuilding my linux server int a dual PIII 1000 1U server I have sitting out in the garage, or I will take my existing server and back fit it with Fortran.

          The Excel route is probably a non-stater, since in order to to iterations you have to use a macro or VBA scripting. I’m not up to that time sink and would rather do something more productive… like drinking beer or compiling another El Hierro tide table so that I can put the swarm correlation to rest… again.

  13. I’ve had a boring day. So this is a out of topic. Sorry about that.

    I was a weekend away from home. So this evening I read your writings.
    I find that exciting things happened during my absence.

    Anyway. Here is the news that I found on of YLE’s website.

    For centuries, folk tales and travellers have mentioned the sounds associated with Aurora Borealis, the northern lights. Finnish researchers have now recorded and pinned down the location of the source of the noises.

  14. Statement from Involcan about the emission of gasses.

    ,,El INVOLCAN estima que la actual emisión de CO2 a la atmósfera por el edificio volcánico insular de El Hierro es actualmente de 332 toneladas diariasThis rate of emission is very similar to the average value of diffuse emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by the volcanic island building of El HierroScientists from the Institute of technology and renewable energies (ITER), the body that is part of the Cabildo Insular de Tenerife, and today forming part of the volcanological Institute de Canarias (INVOLCAN) have been reported to the direction of the Special Plan of Civil protection by volcanic risk in the autonomous community of Canary Islands (PEVOLCA) that the most recent data on diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere by the volcanic edifice island of El Hierro is 332 ± 25 tons per day. Note that this value refers to the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere through the entire surface Island (278 Km2) of the island of the Meridian.Este valor es muy similar al valor promedio estimado para el sistema volcánico insular de El Hierro (345 toneladas diarias), y menor que las 768 ± 25 toneladas diarias registradas por el INVOLCAN el pasado 4 de abril de 2012 cuando el INVOLCAN no pudo continuar este tipo de estudios debido a la falta de apoyos económicos para atender correctamente la fase post-eruptiva de este episodio de reactivación magmática bajo la isla de El Hierro. La evolución temporal de este registro refleja una supuesta tendencia descendente de la emisión difusa de dióxido de carbono (CO2) desde el pasado 4 de abril al 7 de julio de 2012.The range of values of diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) considered normal for the iron range approximately from the 142 to 866 tonnes per day, with an average of 345 tonnes per day. To obtain these results ITER scientists have made periodic scientific campaigns of diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in El Hierro since 1998. Each of these scientific campaigns involve the completion of hundreds of diffuse flow of carbon dioxide (CO2) measures carried out over the entire surface of the island of El Hierro, in order to investigate variations spatio-temporal of the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere by the volcanic edifice island of El Hierro.The interest and importance of this work on diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 for volcanic monitoring) due to that the information generated through these scientific campaigns cannot be obtained through permanent instrumental networks. Other scientific reasons that guarantee the interest of these monitoring work are the role played by gases as driving force of the volcanic eruptions, know that the carbon dioxide (CO2) is the second major component of volcanic gases, after water vapor, and aware to the low solubility of carbon dioxide in molten (magma) silicitados favours the exhaust of carbon dioxide (CO2) with great ease of volcanic systems in depth.These scientific campaigns have failed to materialize under the project MAKAVOL “Strengthening of the capabilities of I+D+i+d to contribute to reducing volcanic risk in the Macaronesia (3/MAC/C161)” is being co-funded by the programme transnational cooperation of the European Union Madeira-Canarias – Azores (MAC 2007-2013) and the collaboration of the insular councils of Tenerife and El Hierro.The volcanological Institute de Canarias (INVOLCAN) or national centre of volcanology is an institution demanded unanimously by the Senate (2005), Parliament of the Canary Islands (2006) and Congress (2009) which calls for an urgent and urgent to the General Administration of the State and of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands and the Island Councils to the commitment of all the human and technical resources different administrations for the scientific volcanic risk management in Spain (applies to the Canary Islands, the only volcanically active region in the country with volcanic risk) without implying the loss of ownership of their resources and in order to ensure effective and efficient coordination for reducing volcanic risk in the Canary Islands. To date, the Cabildo Insular de Tenerife is the only administration that has been involved with this unanimous decision by the legislative chambers of this country.Desde el INVOLCAN se recuerda que la información oficial sobre el nivel de alerta ante fenómenos volcanológicos adversos es la que se emite a través de los comunicados del Plan Especial de Protección Civil y Atención de Emergencias por Riesgo Volcánico en la Comunidad Autónoma de Canarias (PEVOLCA)

    Picture captionTemporal evolution of the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the island of El Hierro (red circles) registered by the INVOLCAN and the number of localized daily earthquakes of magnitude greater than 2.5 by the national seismic network (IGN).!/pages/Actualidad-Volc%C3%A1nica-de-Canarias-AVCAN/163883668446

  15. Sorry tried to leave some of the Spanish sentences in just in case the translation was not good but seem to have made a mess of this.

  16. There is talk of the Avcan FB Page that the 3.8 early this morning was actually felt also in La Gomera .Would this be possible ?

    ,,Y por supuesto, en La Gomera, ha sido muy sentido, al menos en San Sebastián y en Valle Gran Rey despertó a mas de uno con el meneito.

    And of course, in La Gomera, has been strongly felt, at least in San Sebastian and in Valle Gran Rey woke up more than one with the meneito.

    Also the same person left these comments aswell this morning.

    ,,Really think that you we need to reflect on some of the insightful comments and observations in this post. First, the strange variation of the graph at 04: 00 UTC, just a few minutes before the brutal earthquake more than 4.0 MBlg that has only been marked with 3.8 MBlg, warned by one of our prized correspondents. Also the brand that this earthquake has left at the signal of the Seismograph of La Gomera, where it seems that occurred, rather than in El Hierro. This earthquake has been preceded by any other strange signal, type LP, and finally, has set the depth of 22 kms. that increasingly we are seeing that it is the depth of reference in which the greater part of those isolated from the trenecitos or phases of greater activity, earthquakes is manifesting itself so it can partiir now you change slightly the process towards a behavior more intense and surprising. Good morning to all. ,,

    • Yes of course it could be felt there, this earthquake had the bulk of the energy in the two distinct pulses, so it travelled a fair distance longer than the more common magmatic earthquakes.
      It is important that you understand that this was more of a tectonic than a volcanic earthquake. A volcano-magmatic earthquake spreads the energy out over a longer period of time, and as such never have those large sudden peaks that a tectonic quake has.

      • So could this Tetonic earthquake have anything to do with the quakes around the same time in the Strait of Gibraltar and Morocco?

        • No, absolutly not. Earthquakes do not cause earthquakes that happen on non related faultlines thousands of kilometers away. Especially never small assed piddly quakes like this.

  17. @ Irpsit, the explorer of SISZ also posted someware above. Nice info.

    Some data from:

    The spatial distribution of Holocene cryptotephras in north-west Europe since 7 ka: implications for understanding ash fall events from Icelandic eruptions.
    Ian T. Lawson a,*, Graeme T. Swindles a, Gill Plunkett b, David Greenberg
    Quaternary Science Reviews 41 (2012) 57e66

    Tephra name, Reported date (cal yrs), source,Geochemical type, p-value
    Hekla, 1947 AD, 1947, H Hekla 11, Dacitic-Andesitic, e
    Askja 1875 AD 1875 H Askja 13 Rhyolitic 0.000*
    Hekla 1510 AD 1510 H Hekla 13 Dacitic-Andesitic 0.003*
    PMG-5/MOR-T2 c. AD 1400 I (Chambers et al., 2004) Jan Mayen? 3 Trachyte e
    Öræfajökull 1362 AD 1362 H Öræfajökull 9 Rhyolitic 0.181
    Hekla 1104 AD 1104 H Hekla 21 Rhyolitic 0.001*
    Landnám AD 871  2 GRIP ice core (Grönvold et al., 1995) Veiðivötn/Torfajökull 3 Basaltic e
    Tjørnuvík 9th century AD I (Hannon et al., 2001) Hekla 4 Andesitic-Rhyolitic e
    AD 860 B AD 776e887 W (Pilcher et al., 1995; Wastegård et al., 2003) ? 20 Rhyolitic 0.006*
    AD 860 A AD 776e887 W (Pilcher et al., 1995; Wastegård et al., 2003) ? 5 Rhyolitic 0.111
    GA4-85 c. AD 700e800 I (Hall and Pilcher, 2002) Katla? 4 Dacitic-Trachydacitic e
    Glen Garry 16e260 BC W (Barber et al., 2008) ? 26 Dacitic-Rhyolitic 0.000*
    BMR-190 705e585 BC W (Plunkett et al., 2004) Hekla 7 Dacitic 0.000*
    Microlite 755e680 BC W (Plunkett et al., 2004) ? 20 Rhyolitic 0.003*
    GB4-150 (wSILK-UN) 800e758 BC W (Plunkett et al., 2004) Katla 8 Dacitic-Trachydacitic 0.003*
    Hekla 3 1087e1006 BC W (van den Bogaard et al., 2002) Hekla 13 Dacitic-Rhyolitic 0.008*
    Hekla-S/Kebister 1800e1750 BC W (Wastegård et al., 2008) Hekla 19 Dacitic-Rhyolitic 0.002*
    Hekla 4 2395e2279 BC W (Pilcher et al., 1995) Hekla 44 Rhyolitic 0.135
    Mjáuvøtn A c. 3550 BC I (Wastegård et al., 2001) ? 3 Basaltic e
    Hoy 4620e4230 BC R (Dugmore et al., 1995) Torfajökull 3 Rhyolitic e
    Lairg B 4774e4677 BC W (Pilcher et al., 1996) Torfajökull 10 Rhyolitic 0.093
    Lairg A 4997e4902 BC W (Pilcher et al., 1996) Hekla 13 Rhyolitic 0.032

    If you want i can mail you the article (or upload it to volcanocafe??)

    • I also found some articles:
      – A.J. Dugmore, Abandoned Farms, Volcanic Impact, and Wood Management: Revisiting Þjórsárdalur, the “Pompeii of Iceland”. Arctic Anthropology , Vol. 44, No.1, pp.1-11 (pdf)
      – Guðrún E. Jóhannsdóttir, Early Holozene Tephrochronology in West Iceland and its Application for Paleoclimate Studies. (only abstract)
      – Martin P. Kirkbridge, Two millenia of Glacier Advances from southern Iceland dated by Tephrochronology. Quaternary Research 70 (2008), pp. 398-411 (pdf)

      There are some nice cross sections analyzes through Icelandic soil in the 1st and last one. The first one is about Hekla region, the last one about Eyjafjallajökull (Gígjökull). 🙂

      Don’t have the web addresses, you’ll have to use a search engine.

  18. Pingback: VC Sunday Special | Quake Watch

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