Sakura-jima and a riddle!

Sakura-jima, one of Japan’s most active volcanoes, is a 13,000 year old Decade volcano located in Kyūshū, Japan, overlooking the city of Kagoshima (population of 680,000 approx).

An ash-rich eruption column rises above Sakura-jima volcano on September 9, 1985 (Tom Pierson – U.S. Geological Survey)

Sakura-jima lies in the Aira Caldera which formed during an eruption 22,000 years ago. This eruption is believed to have been in the order of a VEI7, producing large pyroclastic flows, a caldera 17 × 23 km-wide and large pumice fall. It is estimated that somewhere in the order of 400 km3 of tephra was erupted.

Sakura-jima, itself, is a stratovolcano with three peaks: Kita-dake, Naka-dake and Minami-dake. Kita-dake ( 1,11 m) is the highest peak.

Most of Sakura-jima’s eruptions are Strombolian but it has produced a few Plinian eruptions. Early eruptions were from Kita-dake to 2900BC; activity then moved to the Minami-dake crater, which has been active ever since. After 1914 it had minor explosive activity, including the creation of the Showa crater in 1939. In 1955 activity increased. The volcano may now erupt as frequently as between every four to 24 hours.

Large eruptions occurred in 1471–1476 (VEI 5?), 1779–1782(VEI 4), 1914(VEI 4) and 1946 (VEI 2). Each of these produced andesitic lava flows large enough to alter the coastline of Sakura-jima. The 1914 eruption occurred after a period of dormancy of more than 100 years.

Because of the threat to nearby populations, Sakura-jima was designated a Decade Volcano in 1991, which means that it is monitored as part of the United Nations’ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.

Sakura-jima is heavily monitored: both the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and Kyoto University’s Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory (SVO) monitors the volcano’s activity. SVO was set up in 1960. Monitoring techniques used at Sakura-jima are:

Ground deformation, including a tide levels in the bay.
Seismometers detect earthquakes which occur immediately beneath the crater, signaling the onset of the eruption. They occur 1 to 1.5 seconds before the explosion.
Tiltmetre systems measure minute movements of the mountain.
Ground water temperature.
Remotes sensing is used on Sakurajima since the gases are highly toxic: the ratio of HCl gas to SO2 gas increases significantly shortly before an eruption.

Kagoshima has an interesting history, including being attributed the birthplace of Japan’s industrial revolution after a group of its students shared Western science and technology gleaned from a clandestine visit to England and the USA. It is also called the “Naples of the Eastern World”, having a similar bay and climate as its namesake in Italy; Kagoshima’s bay is from the Aira Caldera.

Kagoshima conducts regular evacuation drills; it has built shelters where people can take refuge from volcanic ash; and, it also has an extensive system of man-made channels and dams (Sabo dams) to provide protection from lahars. Kagoshima City’s website has useful information on what to do to prepare for an eruption and what to do in the event of an eruption:

Sakura-jima’s volcanic activity is fed by lavas created by the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Eurasian Plate – more about this later.

KarenZ, September 4, 2012


Aramaki, Shigeo (1984). “Formation of the Aira Caldera, Southern Kyushu, ∼22,000 Years Ago”. Journal of Geophysical Research 89 (B10): 8485–8501. Bibcode 1984JGR….89.8485A. doi:10.1029/JB089iB10p08485.
The Smithsonian Institution GVP:


An evil riddle by AlanC

Ruddy cephalopods – when they get angry, they come out in lumps!
What am I?
Where am I found?
How was I formed?

Good hunting!


325 thoughts on “Sakura-jima and a riddle!

    • While I consider the hype about global warming to be just that this is a very short study, whereas Japanese studies going back over a much longer period suggest a gradual temperature rise of minimal proportions, however even that is short compared to the longer frame again. This article looks at global cooling caused by freshwater entering the North Atlantic. There may well be a feedback loop happening now, leading to widespread cooling as the ice melts.

  1. “King Dick”, “Big Willie”…

    Hmm… Moby Dick was the antagonist in the story “Moby Dick.” “Free Willie” was about an Orca… (or Willie Nelson was arrested again.)

    Both have whales in common. All are Cetaceans.

    Or… it could be a homophone of Wales.

    I think someone is being a bit sneaky.

    • You could be right: lower Jurassic sediments have been found on the shores of Cardigan Bay. A borehole at Mochras, Shell Island, found 1,300m of calcerous mudstones and shales. Middle and Upper Jurassic rock has also been found in Cardigan Bay.

      • Interesting fault there: the Mochas fault separates the Cambrian rocks of the Harlech Dome from the borehole site. The borehole is believed to be in a deep down-faulted basin. The fault may have a depth of 4,500 m.

    • In all likelihood, the central area was shielded from the brunt of the erosion due to the ice being lofted by the “leading edge” of the plug. As the ice was pushed up, the down range portion of the ice would not have pushed down as hard.

      Think of it as slow motion turbulence.

  2. OK My last ditch attempt at this one ……
    I am a Belamnite
    I Was like a squid but not actually one. I lived in shallow warm seas between the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
    Mostly all that has been fossilised is the rostrum or Guard of these animals. it is roughly cylindrical in shape ( Phallic???? See – Phallo- Pods hence the big willies and king dicks….. and OMG! Prawn ( Porn) everywhere! I will be lucky if this riddle search hasn’t left me with a nasty virus…..Surprising what websites come up in Riddle hunting!!!)
    I am now a fossil and there are lots of different species related to me. Here is the biggest . The guard of the belemnoid Megateuthis gigantea, which is found in Europe and Asia, can measure up to 46 centimetres (18 in) in length, giving the living animal an estimated length of 3 metres (9.8 ft).
    I am not as big I am about 6 inches long (Good size for a Big Willy though) My group of belemnites is … The Acrocoelites genus was numerous during the Toarcian. Fossils of Acrocoelites sp. have been found in the limestone of Bavaria, Germany. Also other genuses found in the Jurassic and Cretacious sediments of Dorset & Yorkshire in the UK.
    How I was formed? Well…
    There was this mass frenzy of mating belemnites. ,Like squid of the 21st century it was a fight to get the best females. Then the energy used for the mating process and egg laying was too much and there was a mass death, like a battlefield. We all sank to the bottom of the sea and our bodies covered by sea sediments. Over a few million years.the pressure of the sediments distorted our fleshy bodies and the decayed but our rear ends were made of aragonite and in particular calcite which hardened and preserved or shape……
    Lots of images and more detail here at wiki…

    Wine ? ros =red? Rostrum= Roast Rum? Lumps well belemnites tend to be found in clumps and lumps of rock….. angry? = So would you be if you were in amongst that lot hunting for the prettiest female belemnite!!!

    • This scenario has been playing out for millions of years….except for the (Swedish?) Chef at the end! Notice the male squid’s Rose (Ruddy) Blush.

  3. Odd “Sombrero” Uplift Observed In Andean Mountains Due To Magma Chamber.
    Geophysicists at University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have identified a unique phenomenon in Altiplano-Puna plateau, located in the central Andes near the borders of Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.

    Magma underneath the Earth’s crust is forcing the ground up in one spot, and at the same time sinking the ground around it. The result is something the researchers have described as the “sombrero uplift,” after the popular Mexican hat.

    redOrbit (

  4. For those interested in comet impacts and climate change I wonder if this one matches any of the tree ring data collected by Professor Baillie:

    ‘Dr. Abbott and her colleagues have located chevrons in the Caribbean, Scotland, Vietnam and North Korea, and several in the North Sea.

    Hither Hills State Park on Long Island has a chevron whose front edge points to a crater in Long Island Sound, Dr. Abbott said. There is another, very faint chevron in Connecticut, and it points in a different direction.

    Marie-Agnès Courty, a soil scientist at the European Center for Prehistoric Research in Tautavel, France, is studying the worldwide distribution of cosmogenic particles from what she suspects was a major impact 4,800 years ago.

    But Madagascar provides the smoking gun for geologically recent impacts. In August, Dr. Abbott, Dr. Bryant and Slava Gusiakov, from the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory in Russia, visited the four huge chevrons to scoop up samples.

    Last month, Dee Breger, director of microscopy at Drexel University in Philadelphia, looked at the samples under a scanning electron microscope and found benthic foraminifera, tiny fossils from the ocean floor, sprinkled throughout. Her close-ups revealed splashes of iron, nickel and chrome fused to the fossils.

    When a chondritic meteor, the most common kind, vaporizes upon impact in the ocean, those three metals are formed in the same relative proportions as seen in the microfossils, Dr. Abbott said.’

  5. Sunday
    14.10.2012 12:23:44 64.809 -17.178 2.9 km 3.1 90.04 3.4 km NNE of Kistufell
    14.10.2012 12:22:28 65.372 -17.324 1.1 km 2.0 38.33 33.4 km NW of Lokatindur
    14.10.2012 12:22:24 64.969 -16.526 2.2 km 2.7 61.52 8.5 km SSE of Dreki
    14.10.2012 12:22:20 64.812 -17.179 2.1 km 3.2 90.06 3.7 km NNE of Kistufell

  6. Home, showered (as if not wet enough already!) ‘n’ hungry!
    Ding time!!
    Riddle answer

    Ammonitico Rosso
    Red, nodular and marly limestones (Ammonitico Rosso, Knollenkalke) are a stratigraphically condensed pelagic facies widely distributed in the Alpine-Mediterranean Jurassic. The rock comprises lime-rich nodules set in a darker red marly matrix: nodule-rich and marl-rich layers generally alternate. Previous authors have related the nodular structure to irregular solution of a deep-marine calcareous sea-bottom.

    Tethyan – M Jur-L Cret age

    So, full 3 peal to Karen 🙂
    As a ‘prize’/punishment, Karen has the dubious pleasure of selecting the next riddle category
    1) Mineral
    2) ‘Pot-luck’ (palaeontology/igneous/nasties 👿 )
    So, you can’t blame me if it’s ‘orrid!! 🙂

  7. Finally the scales fell from my eyes and I found out how to download the IMO earthquake database It would have helped if google had told me what Skjálftalisti means ;-).
    So here is my first Icelandic plot in the Tjörnes fracture zone where some above 3 magnitude earthquakes occurred. The marker size is proportional to ML and the color to days since July, 12th, 2012. The depth axis is proportional to the latitude. The map (also from IMO) is slightly stretched in NS direction because I fitted it into the square plot (haven´t found out yet how to change that).

    I leave the interpretation to the experts here.

    • lovely. imho you should go back in time for longer. There are pretty much well defined zones. I only say this, without knowledge of the history of the place….

      • The List from 1995 to about Sep 2012 is 284,272 events.

        At about 64°N, the Y to X ratio should be about 2.28 to 1. (Lat to Lon) in order to get equally scaled distances.

        • Thanks! The plot can most definately be improved.

          284,272 is for all of Iceland, no? At about 30000 events the rotation begins to slow down. The main obstacle is that the events are in weekly packages and its a little tiresome to load them all to 1995 ;-).

          In order to get the scale right I need to get a map image (jpg) with custom Lat-Lon (does anyone know a fast and uncomplicated way?), because it is stretched to the axis range by Igor. Since I conveniently snatched the available map from IMO I had to adjust the axis to fit the image, bad compromise.
          Alternatively I could make a surface plot with topological and bathymetric data. Would take some time, but worth the efford if something “interesting” should happen 🙂 .

          • The 284,272 is from the very same files that you are trying to digest. I’ve been down that road and have the whole shebang in one spreadsheet. It’s a monster. It took about two weeks to put together. Mine runs up to the first part of September from the last update I did of it.

            As a csv, it’s 28+ Megs.

          • Carl is probably gonna skin me for it… but here is what I have compiled.

            DO NOT DOWNLOAD THIS UNLESS YOU KNOW HOW TO USE IT. It’s a big arsed spreadsheet that has all the files that chryphia is trying to digest rolled into one file.


            Right click and “save as.” It’s big, and I pulled all formulas from it so it shouldn’t throw any macro warnings. The only problem is that you need a compatible Excel to use it. (xlsx extention) Older Excel products that use just the xls can’t deal with this many data points. Also.. WordPress doesn’t support csv (comma separated values), which would have given the greatest comparability. (any program that could handle a csv could use it within the limitations of the program)

            This file is subject to being deleted for space sake, or if Carl get’s ticked off at me.

            And yes, this is the Listi file… without the formula stuff that I had added to it.

        • You’re going to find that Icelandic topology is hard to find. Being that far North, it is outside of the CGIAR SRTM data set. (beats me why)

          ETOPO might be of use, or a dead end.

          But, you can definitely get terrain data for Iceland here, but the grid is not as tight as I would like. I have had to regrid on occasion in order to fill some of the gaps. The problem is that my regridding is not Krigging, it’s just a polysheet. That adds some inconsistency. To do it properly would require krigging for the best result.

          If you are doing straight line of bearing (LOB) terrain pulls, you could craft a query for Google Earth and have it spit the LOB elevation out at you.

          I made a spreadsheet formula that allows me to put in two lat-lon pairs and it generates the query, then I copy that into a browser window and Google responds with an XML of the data points. (max of about 500). It’s handy, but labor intensive. It also is query limited to about 10000 points per day.

          Alternately, I could fabricate the overlay for you using DivaGIS, I have had moderate success in re-projecting the shapefiles into mercator projection. That would probably yeild what you are after, but may take some work to get the references down. Once I switch to mercator I get weird numbering of the coords that don’t match lat-lon. But it looks nice. When I drop quakes on to it, I have to switch their projection also.

          • The “outside the reply box gremlin” was waiting again ( See below). Really wierd .As I started typing the text appeared above and outside of the box.
            Anyways! I have used Excel. I can see how amazing it can be but Excel and I are not compatible!
            This is the reason I am in awe of the work on plotting I see here from Lurking and others he has inspired.

          • Geolurking, you are awesome! Thank you very much for sharing at least two weeks life time! I opened the file in Excel 2010 Starter (free version that came with Windows 7), which doesn´t support macros anyways.

            Thank you also very much for the helpful links, I´ve bookmarked them all. I previously downloaded data from the GEODAS design-a-grid site (NOAA) for my other pet project (Eifel volcanic field) and I can get Igor to load lots of formats. I am just overwhelmed by the many possibilites and choices. Inserting a simple image file is just so much faster, easier and sufficient for visualization.

            For the El Hierro surface plot I used a Voronoi image interpolation to reduce the size of the original xyz data. Igor also supports kriging ( but so far I failed to learn how to set the parameters right. Unfortunately I am not really into programming and so far haven´t found any Igor code I could copy for that purpose :-(. But one fine day…

            Yes, a mercator projection is what I presumably need and since googlemaps uses it I will have a go there first.

            Aargh, this is one of the time when I fell my brain is just a too small nutshell to fit all the lovely information into (eager to get some memory extension sometime in the future 😉 ).

            Anyways, xyz guns are loaded for Iceland now! Woot!

          • It should be in Excel format already. Just select the date time format that you want.

            For example, 15 Sep 2012 at 12:45 is 41167.53125000

            Set the cell to the right format and it shows it as 15 Sep 1012 12:45

          • Right now I am stuck when importing new listi data. E.g. Excel displays listi time 005952.074 (00:59:52.074 = as 5952.074 and e.g. 112135.357 as it is, because it ignores the zeroes.

            I can unify display of both formatting cells user defined to 000000.000.

            I know Excel encodes date-time as numbers, but 005952.074 and 112135.357 are not the right numbers but kind of text time formats. So I have to make Excel find out what is hour, minute, second, calculate their Excel values and finally put the whole into Excel time format.

            That´s what I meant with pain…Playing around now with format as text, =left(a1,2) or something. Stuck here and too late to continue.

          • Could not….
            a1 listi time
            b1 =round(a1,0)
            c1 =b1+1000000
            d1 =mid(c1,2,2)
            e1 =mid(c1,4,2)
            f1 =mid(c1,6,2)
            g1 =d1/24+e1/1440+f1/86400
            h1 listi date
            I1 =h1+g1
            I am happy now 🙂

        • How wierd! I seem to have typed the above outside outside of the reply box! What I was saying before the Monday morning Gremlin got me , was,……I am beyond the age of caring what people think, and I am at the age where they will smile condescendingly and put any outrageous comments I make down to my slowly rolling my marbles down a grid.

          • In a few years (not as many as I would like; or may be not as few as I would like 😕 ), I will be able to do the same! 😀

  8. BOOYA!!!

    My weekend has… blown goats.

    A couple of weeks ago, I changed out the batteries in an SU2200 Va UPS. This is a set of 4 12V-18aH batteries. (equiv to 2 APC RBC-11). Generally, when you change out the batteries, the UPS picks up the battery change, re-calibrates and your good. In a worst case scenario, you have to drill out the rivets of the lower chassis and pry the frame apart just to get the batteries out… if they are swollen. Then you have to re-assemble the frame and re-rivet it back together. A few years ago, I had to do that with this particular unit. Eventually, batteries go bad, and that’s why I had to change this set recently. During that job, I noted that the 100 amp fuse that bridges the batteries was badly deteriorated, and probably should be replaced, but was still functional and operable. On newer RBC-11 sets, APC has taken to not using the fuse, and just puts a metal bus bar across the contacts for the bridge. In essence, it makes sense… a lot more sense than using a 100 amp fuse. At 12V-18aH, the batteries can (theoretically) sustain an 18 amp discharge rate for one hour. No matter how you look at it, that’s a lot of juice… and to be fused for 5.5 times that rate seems a bit… “stupid.” That fuse is not really going to protect much of anything anyway. (12VDC at 100 amps is about 1200 watts) So, the bus bar is just as effective.

    But… back to the crap weekend. Occasionally, a UPS will not pick up that the batteries have been changed.. or at least not fully pick it up. “SU” means “Smart UPS”, and there is an internal logic board that controls the UPS functions. On 4th Generation APC units, you can force a system reset if you have a special “dongle” that goes into the serial port. I have two. The last time I saw them was about… a year and a half ago. I have a ticket on a site that needs batteries replaced, and unless they have a different unit, it’s gonna be the one I did a couple of weeks ago. I can do the batteries, I can replace the fuse, if that’s what it is, but where in the flying [censored] is my dongle?

    I have.. at my disposal.. a few options.

    1) Tear two trucks apart and search for it… including every box, drawer, cabinet in the garage, my shop room, and my computer room.. including any nick-nack “I don’t know what to do with it so I’ll stick it in this drawer” location in the house… a drawer populated by me, my wife, my stepson, two grand-kids, and two daughters that have been in and around the house over the last year and a half.

    2) Fabricate an APC specific serial adapter and Hyperterminal into the APC using my laptop and set the battery constant manually. Okay.. but I all I have is a wiring diagram. Will it work? Well, I have two SU1400’s out in the garage, one of which I think was operable when I set it there. Check them out… crap, neither one boots. Troubleshoot? No time, could take all weekend. Back to searching.

    Well.. the search is over. I found the dongle. I be a happy camper now. 😀

    BTW… not a lot of people know about the dongle. I got mine from APC about six hears ago. It’s specific to 4th generation units. It will save yer but when you have a cantankerous UPS that doesn’t seem to like it’s new batteries.

    • And, for the Ruminarians…

      I’m sure many of you have heard the story of David and Goliath. Goliath was a Philistine. Who the Philistines actually were, is a point for contention among many researchers and scholars Were they the “Sea People”s that the Egyptians had trouble with?

      From the biblical accounts, Goliath was from the town of Gat.

      Tourists from all over the world have volunteered to help dig at a unique archeological site in Israel

      Tourists from all over the world have volunteered to help dig at a unique archeological site in Israel. The location is called Tel Tsafit, and it’s the Biblical homeland of Goliath, the giant slain by King David when he was just a boy.

      The ancient city was destroyed in one day, back in 830 BCE. The archeological treasure provides insight into life thousands of years ago. The city buried deep in the sands was the Philistine town of Gat. It was destroyed by the King of the ancient Canaanite people of Aram.

      “830 BCE” Well, that puts it into some context… time wise. That means that the events in the story have to precede that rough date.

      That is in the middle of the third intermediate period of Egypt… at about the time of Osorkon II, a pharaoh in the Twenty-second Dynasty and who had an issue with his cousin, king Harsiese A, a competitor. The issue was resolved when Harsiese A keeled over dead. The follow on ruler for Osorkon II was Shoshenq III. At the time, Egypt was having trouble staying unified. Ammeris the Nubian began the Late period of Egypt, which lasted until the Persians came in around 525 BC and kicked everyones ass.

      Source: Wikipedia and that idiot that taught Humanities of the Ancient World that I never saw eye to eye with. Though I didn’t like him politically, he did know his stuff.

      Now.. why is this in a Volcano oriented Blog? Because one of the things we do here (un-officially) is look at volcanic influences through history. This entry helps that endeavor so that we know what was going on during this time-frame. There is a very real possibility that at least one or more of these “intermediate periods” was due to crop failures, crappy weather etc… (and some were due to incompetence, you can’t rule out the human factor. Tristan de Luna proves that.)

  9. A little swarm inside Yellowstone Park:
    2.7 19km WSW of Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming 2012-10-15 03:45:20 44.395°N 111.049°W 8.0
    2.8 21km WSW of Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming 2012-10-15 03:20:44 44.386°N 111.050°W 7.1
    2.6 22km WSW of Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming 2012-10-15 03:06:13 44.376°N 111.087°W 1.1
    2.9 19km WSW of Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming 2012-10-15 02:54:51 44.379°N 111.095°W 0.9
    2.5 16km WSW of Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming 2012-10-15 02:52:58 44.384°N 111.007°W 10.7

  10. A swarm started in Bardarbunga volcano in Iceland, near Kistufell field. This is quite an area prone to earthquakes but also might be nearing an eruption according to Icelandic scientists. Its also near the exact center of the Icelandic hotspot. Largest quake was a 3.0 and a few larger than 2.0

  11. Monday 15th October 2012
    Heard Island Volcano, Australia
    Activity continues at Heard Island volcano, Australian territory. Satellite images showed hotspots at the volcano on 10th October 2012. Renewed activity began at Heard Island in September 2012. Heard Island is Australia’s only currently erupting volcano.

  12. If a earthquake larger than 3 would occur near Katla, everyone would jump saying “hey that’s an earthquake in Katla, bla bla, eruption nearing, bla bla”.

    Now we have a earthquake similarwise in Bardarbunga and no one comments, to my surprise. Oh poor Bardarbunga. Why we ignore Bardarbunga? This is a more dangerous volcano than Katla, its eruptions are much larger, sometimes by ash, mostly often by largest amounts of running lava in the entire world. It is the widest, tallest and largest caldera, and also largest volcanic system in Iceland. It holds the record of largest lava field on Earth since ice-age, largest and tallest shield volcano in Iceland. Also the largest ash eruption since settlement, the Vatnaoldur eruption. Its the bigger brother of Grimsvotn. Also sleeping now for far longer time than Katla or Hekla. Hence it is truly forgotten, ignored, unknown. But considered last decade we are having many more earthquakes there, and especially deep ones, compared to Hekla, Katla, Krisuvik or Askja.

    Its very unfair that so many people only talk of the slighest earthquake at Katla or Hekla, while Bardarbunga is probably the most forgotten volcano in Iceland. So much for the only largest of all in Iceland, that holds most of the records!

    To media: this is not yet a sign of any future eruption. But its getting more restless the volcano.

    • Even by tourist visits, it is the most ignored sight of Iceland. Its a majestic dome rising above Vatnajokull, and visible if you travel in Sprengisandur road in summer time. And well visible if you flight over the glacier. The caldera shape is beautiful. The trouble is that it lies in a remote area, usually not very much visited by tourists.

      But everyone only wants to see Hekla or Katla when it comes to Iceland…. oh Bardarbunga. Why they forgot you?


      • Simple reason really. Not as famous! I for one do not consider it as dangerous per se. More time available to know where flood will come (due larger distances to nearest settlements) and simply as it does not erupt as often.

    • It’s like that guy over in the corner of the bar that no one wants to engage in conversation. A huge lurking hulk with a glean of wildness in his eye. Sure, he will talk to you, but he might just as well tear your head off.

      Likewise, I don’t mention Bardarbunga because I don’t want to be accused of trying to scare the @#$@# out of people. It can make some pretty large quakes and just sit there quiet, confusing the hell out of the seismologists with it’s odd non-double couple quake sets. (no net volume increase or decrease, and no sheer motion.)

      • Exactly 🙂

        And as we are approaching a peak in activity at the hotspot (within next few decades) there is a greater change of a fissure eruption occuring there (and less likely a large explosive eruption). It seems that the favourite spot for this eruption would be at Kistufell itself (followed by Hamarinn). Eruptions towards the north do not occur as often and also volumes of magma seem to be less larger (but anyways its usually still a large volume).

        I think that usually all magma from the hostpot tends to face rockbed beneath Bardarbunga, and therefore we see all the earthquakes there, and then it seems to prefer travel elsewhere, usually reaching surface near Grimsvotn (the path is already widely open there). Therefore its frequent eruption behavior: I say that most hotspot magma exists through Grimsvotn. Ocasionally, it pushes to the fissural region toeards the north or the southwest, but that is only every few centuries. This behavior seems to have occurred all throughout the recent millenia: no eruptions at the central caldera of Bardarbunga recorded. But when it does, it will be really powerful, a VEI5 at the very least. Alternatively we could find that magma exiting through Hamarinn.

        What is a pity is having no data regarding this region, any data is screwed by the fact that glacial uplift also occurs around the glacier.

  13. Don’t worry Badarbunga, we welcome you just like the rest of the Icelandic gang 😀

    Remember, it was Badarbunga that had the largest eruption of Iceland in Historic times, a VEI 6 eruption in the 15th Century.

      • Hekla 3 eruption was at least as large as the Bardarbunga eruptions in 870 (Vatnaoldur) and 1477 (Veidivotn). Probably twice as large. That eruption of Hekla was colossal, judging by its ash deposits around Iceland. But GVP assigns a VEI6 to 1477 Veidivotn eruption and a VEI4-5 to the others, which is completely wrong.

        Obviously Vatnaoldur and Hekla 3 had way more ash (so they must be at least VEI6 eruptions as well).

        Also these two eruptions deposited more ash than Askja 1875 and Oraefajokull 1362 (respectively a VEI5 and weak VEI6 eruptions). So this again reinforces the idea that Vatnaoldur from Bardarbunga and Hekla 3 were both in the VEI6 range.

        How underestimated are these eruptions.

    • You know… that might actually be doable. I found one of the ISAR images that has the annual deflection legend on it. And I already have a referenced version.

      I think you have just made a new project for me. 😀

  14. Ahh now we just begin a row of good sunny days! Second day now 🙂 And it will the rest of the week

    Cold but nice during the day, but heavy frosts during the night and morning.

    • Machin has been rumbling for a little while now since it had a 4.6 earthquake. I wish I knew more about the quakes, but there have been quite a few that were clipping along with intermittent seismicity.

  15. I dont know what is up with Carl, could not reach him the last days.
    KarenZ sent a Sakura-jima part 2. So there will be a follow up post on this one.
    There are some drafts waiting in line and the next one to go online is Bobbi´s.

    New post is up Redoubt

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