When glaciers start running 1

What is a jökulhlaup?

At the moment (December 30, 2012), water height and conductivity are again on the rise in Múlakvísl, an outlet river of Mýrdalsjökull glacier, the one covering the famous Katla volcano in the south of Iceland.


Plots from Icelandic Metorological Office (vatnafar)

This could be a sign for again another jökulhlaup in this region, Mýrdalssandur, where the Ringroad bridge was destroyed last year – or maybe not.

But what is a jökulhlaup?

Jökulhlaup is an Icelandic word which comes from „hlaup(ið)“ which means „(the) run“ and „jökull“ meaning „glacier“ – one of many Icelandic composita, as in Icelandic language words are set together like in puzzles. English words describing the phenomenon are “glacier run” or “glacial outlet flood”. (There is also a German expression for it: “Gletscherlauf”.)

For a long time, it has been sort of a puzzle, what is happening to glaciers and their lakes as well as under the many Icelandic glacier caps where volcanoes lie in wait for their next awakening. Because jökulhlaup often happen without any (observable) eruption.

Glacier outlet floods can have a lot of different origins.

There can be some which have nothing to do with volcanic activity, like the famous Lituya Bay run. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lituya_Bay In this case, a landslide in 1958 caused an enormous tsunami. Dam failures by earthquake or material break down can also be behind this, as was the case sometimes in the Alps.

Some floods can also be initiated by surging glaciers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surge_%28glacier%29 ), which may or may not stand in a complicated and not yet clear relationship to volcanic activity.

And now we are approaching the really interesting cases.

There are also some different kinds of jökulhlaup, the real ones, which are in some way or other caused be volcanic activity.

Some of you were a bit disappointed by the last glacier run from a region with two famous ice cauldrons in the southwest of Vatnajökull, which is called the Skaftárkatlar (Skaftá cauldrons) in August 2012 http://www.vedur.is/um-vi/frettir/nr/2520 . It was a really small one, of about 185 m3/sec.

As is to be seen in this film https://contour.com/stories/skaftarkatlar-30-08-2012 the glacier runs normally come from sort of an indentation in the big ice caps that cover in the whole 11% of Iceland. And the runs from this region are produced very regularly, in a rhythm of 1-2 years, mostly in the spring or summer, so that the people down in Kirkjubaejarklaustur almost set their clock in connection to them.

They are caused by a high temperature area, and intrusion under the ice of Vatnajökull, which melts more or less the same amount of ice in the same time span. The water is collected in a bowl shaped lake under the ice and when there is enough of it, breakes the ice barrier in front and runs down through a system of tubes in the ice, which is built up and widened by the water pressure and heat of the water. These are – as we have seen this summer again – small glacier runs, which build up rather fast to a certain maximum and then slowly fade out again, “(…) there are, however, other types of Skaftá floods which have no distinct discharge peak but maintain a strong, stable current for up to 2 weeks before terminating.” (H. Björnsson, 2010, 2).

A similar kind of smaller, but volcanically induced hlaups is also found at the Grímsvötn volcanic system. We saw two of them in the last months ( see: http://www.vedur.is/um-vi/frettir/nr/2583 and http://icelandreview.com/icelandreview/daily_news/?cat_id=28304&ew_0_a_id=369682 .

Björnsson, 2002, p.4: 2 drawings, fig.3

In former times, travellers were always very fearful about traversing the sander plains in front of the big glacier caps in Iceland. And the guides, local men, farmers and eg. Postmen, praised like heroes. The most famous one of these was Hannes Jónsson of Núpsstaðir (1880 – 1968) whose life could be subject of a post of its own.

But, if these floods were so small and predictable, why would that be so?

There is still another kind of glacier run to be reckoned with, and that is the one normally connected with the notion: It is the cataclysmic outlet flood, having its origin in a big volcanic eruption under one of the icecaps, by which an enormous quantity of melting water is produced and after a longer or shorter period of time depending on intensity of eruption and last but not least on water pressure and decline of slope rushes down to the sander planes below taking with it a mixture of sediments, gases and icebergs.

Lómagnúpur and the Skeiðarársandur with outlet glacier Skeiðarárjökull in the background

Lómagnúpur and the Skeiðarársandur with outlet glacier Skeiðarárjökull in the background. Image from Wikimedia Commons.

In case of an eruption in the Grímsvötn region – Gjálp 1996 was a fissure system which is part of it – , the subglacial lake in the caldera below the mountain Grímsfjall fills, and in filling takes on the form of a sort of subglacial balloon. When a certain limit is reached, the water pressure is high enough and the ice barrier in front of it is broken, and the water rushes downhill. At the beginning through tunnels in the ice, but if the water discharge surmounts a certain limit, the water lifts first the barrier and then the whole glacier and rushes downhill in sort of a big subglacial wave with the glacier riding onto it. And down in the valley, the water spills out in a lot of bigger and smaller outlets at the snout of the glacier and more or less covers the plain in front. (Björnsson, 2010) The jökulhlaup connected to the Gjálp eruption in 1996 produced no less than 55.000 m3/sec at its peak covering all of Skeiðarársandur. (M.T. Gudmundsson, etal. (2004).

Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons

Drangajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, Vatnajökull, Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull

When I started researching this, I was surprised to find out that not only had the “usual suspects” Vatnajökull and Mýrdalsjökull produced bigger and smaller jökulhlaup running in all directions, but that smaller ones were known from virtually all 5 big Icelandic ice caps, i.e. also Drangajökull (most probably not volcanic, because it is situated outside of the active rift zone), Hofsjökull and Langjökull. (O. Sigurdsson, 2005) And two years ago, we could observe how the outlet glacier Gígjökull from Eyjafjallajökull covered a small glacier lake with debris during some jökulhlaup. http://en.vedur.is/hydrology/articles/nr/2097

The phenomenon is of course not limited to Iceland, but is possible in all parts of the world with glacier covered volcanoes like Alaska or the Andes in South America.

And there have also been famous floods in the distant past, i.e. the Pleistocene, like the Lake Missoula floods which carved out the Columbia River Gorge in the USA, the Altai floods in Siberia, even one in Germany (Münsterland) and then there is the case of Jökulsárgljúfur in Iceland. Some of them are thought to have involved such an enormous quantity of water that the one of 1996 in Iceland is really dwarfed by comparison. But we’ll speak more about these in later posts.

Disclaimer: I am no specialist, just an interested layman.


⁃ Subglacial lakes and jökulhlaups in Iceland, by H. Björnsson (2002)
⁃ Understanding jökulhlaup, from tale to theory, by H. Björnsson (2010)
⁃ Jökulhlaupannáll 1989-2004, by O. Sigurdsson, etal. (2005) (in Icelandic)
⁃ The 1996 eruption at Gjálp, Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland: efficiency
of heat transfer, ice deformation and subglacial water pressure, by Magnús T. Gudmundsson, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, etal. (2004)

94 thoughts on “When glaciers start running 1

  1. Thank you Inge for a very interesting post.
    The sheer scale of the Skeidararsandur is difficult to take in, and having driven across I can imagine how apprehensive people must have been crossing the sands on foot or horseback – nowhere to escape to if the flood came.

    But, one man’s jökulhlaup is another man’s art! This well-known ‘installation’ is next to the highway across the sands, and was created from the twisted girders of the bridge that was swept away in the 1996 Gjálp flood.

    • Thank you for this, Ukviggen. 🙂

      We’ll hear more about the 1996 glacier run on Skeidarársandur very soon, I think. 😉

      @Spica: Thank you for the maps and for setting this in. It is just fine. 🙂

      And a PS: The Lómagnúpur picture is from Wikimedia Commons. Would it be possible to indicate this source next to the picture, Spica?

    • Yes, but they also transport a lot of sediments, they can fill up fjords and lengthen coast lines, as they did eg. at Mýrdalssandur.

      • Yes, the jökulhlaups would erode stuff of the valley floor & sides of / create a valley. The rocks removed are carried by the water to points downstream where they are deposited.

  2. Nice one Inge! I love the way the sense of scale kicks in… We think we’ve seen a lot but actually we haven’t seen much yet at all! Imagine a glacier riding on one of these floods… Cripes. that is some serious power.

  3. Thank you Inge for your nice post which brought back memories from my first and so far only encounter with a glacier on a short vacation to Iceland in 2003 (in my pre-volcanoholic times).
    I was in awe of the landscape but of course totally incapable of naming that lava back then ;-).

    Here is a picture I took of the Sólheimajökull glacier tongue flowing out south of Mýrdalsjökull.

    I wonder if the rather polished looking underside was formed by a jökulhlaup.
    When walking in front of the tip of the tongue I was slightly anxious that a cataclysmic outlet flow would wash us and the other tourists away. Or the glacier would suddenly leap forward. It appears now my fears were not so irrational.

    From an overly protective German point of view, I found it remarkable that on Iceland dangerous places like cliffs or geysirs were rarely fenced. There may be a signpost, but people are obviously not prevented from getting themself killed spectacularly ;-).

    Btw, I found an informative alphabetical list of Iceland glaciers here: http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1746/pdf/PP1746_pg181-194_fig171-185_lowrez.pdf

    • From Wackipedia:

      In general, spectacle refers to an event that is memorable for the appearance it creates. Derived in Middle English from c. 1340 as “specially prepared or arranged display” it was borrowed from Old French spectacle, itself a reflection of the Latin spectaculum “a show” from spectare “to view, watch” frequentative form of specere “to look at.”[1] The word spectacle has also been a term of art in theater dating from the 17th century in English drama.

      So… that begs the question; “If an idiot falls into a geysir and no one is there to watch… is it a spectacle?” (or is it just a Darwin moment?)

    • The polished underside of the glacier is not from jökulhlaup, anyway not from big ones. There is always water melting within Katla caldera because of the high temperature areas under the ice and some of it running down more or less regularly under Sólheimajökull – with it comes a pronounced sulfur smell, and because of that the river Jökulsá á Sólheimasandi has also another name: Fúlukvísl (the stinking brook). 🙂

      But there is no reason to be afraid of Jökulhlaup there, from the known holocene jökulhlaup from Katla volcano most ran down over Mýrdalssandur to the east of Vík, and just 2 known hlaup over Solheimasandur.

      And then it would be known, if Katla would preparing to erupt (very intensive quakes before etc.).

      Re. the warning signs etc.: Icelanders are individualists and think that people are responsible for their own conduct also in known volcanic regions. 🙂

  4. Thank you IngeB. I really enjoyed your post. Liek others I didn’t quite comprehend the size of these sudden floods. terrifying. The valley I drive up to visit my daughter was also caused by a glacial “Outwash” during the last Ice age. Not caused by volcanics but the overflow from a huge glacial lake at the top end washed out this seep sided, craggy vally. It is a n important route across the barrier of the Pennine hillls. The railway, main road and canal follow it. The railway has 7 long tunnels where this incident happened in 1984. All this thanks to the power of moving water. People think they have controlled a river, a stream, the sea. Water will always find it’s way and even the strongest concrete can fail under it’s angry power. I am sure GeoLoco can vouch for this.

  5. Dragons,
    If you read this before having checked your emails, please go check your personal emails. Opinions are needed… 🙂
    Have a nice day!

  6. Great read IngeB, certainly added to my knowledge of Glacier Runs (not even going to try typing the Icelandic word after a couple of homebrews!).

    On a different topic, our friend Tolbachik is peeking out from the clouds and appears to be still going strong.

      • Hi Greg, it is great you have been automating it! I recently spend almost an hour manually taking pictures of Tolbachik for a short sequence. Not that I wouldn´t have done it anyways, but there are certainly better ways to waste your spare time ;-).

  7. Thanks for post IngeB. I might add that there was delay of two-three weeks from Gjálp eruption food untill flood came roaring down. Many seem forgetting flood did NOT come same day, and eruption took days melting thrugh the 600 m thick ice-cap.
    First paragraps read like this (Google translate & corrected): “””The (Gjálp) eruption between Bárðarbunga and Grímsvötn – 30th sept. – 14th October 1996, melted 3.5 km long, up to 500 m wide and 600 m deep “crack” (depression) in the glacier, which was named Gjálp. Water flowed into the Grímsvötn all time the eruption lasted and until and after Skeidará 5th November 1996 flood. Flow from the eruption was estimated between 300 and 400 m³ / sec. It is (was) estimated to contain a volume of 3.2 km ³ of water, when the race (flood) began. The race (flood) was much more and grew faster than expected. At 13:00 hrs the bridge over Gígja (Gígjukvísl) washed away and Skeiðarár-jökull bridge was beginning to give up at the same time, when the road was washed away from both its ends. She is (was) expected to give up soon, because the flood is expected to grow much still (at 14:30 hrs, interview with Stephen Benediktsson and Helga Hallvarðsson the national radio).
    Right from the beginning of the flood fowed over Sæluhúsavatn” (Mountain-huts lake). Value bridges/buildings on the sand is estimated 1.3 billion Kr (0.3 Gígja, 0.7 Skeiðarárbú, 0.3 Núpsvötn and 0.005 billion Sæluhúsavön-bridge). The total value of roads and bridges is approximately 2 billion Kronur. (Kr. 2,000,000,000).
    (Another) Minor eruption occurred north of Grímsvötn, but south of the southern-most crater in the Gjálp depression, which erupted 6th November 1996. Cloud of smoke suggested south of Vatnajökull. Earthquake scientist managed to separate seismicity of this eruption of what was running water. Seismicity of racing (flood) began at. 21:30 hrs 4/11 and rose steadily until at. 22:30 hrs (Running max) 5/11. Activity decreased gradually and stabilized during as the Grimsvötn caldera emptied.””””
    The (largest) bridge at Skeiðarársandur was rebuilt rather quickly, but now the river has moved away! – Most now going to Gigja-kvísl.
    And the personal catch: Was scheduled having a twin-rating (hooded) flight-session from Reykjavik at mid-day same day (November 5th) but the flight-school took the plane (and instructor) and rented out to journalists. I had very good 35mm camera and plenty film ready – despite I had the plane booked (into clear and sunny skies over the flood area) but was not invited along.

  8. I’ve never seen tremor / seismic activity like this at Cerro Machin, and I’ve been watching the seismograms since the summer now. I’m not that knowledgeable on seismograms, but this almost looks like a minor eruption? There was only minor pickup on the seismograms at Nevado Del Ruiz, so this wouldn’t seem to be tectonic event that’s being picked up on the seismograms in the area.

    Anybody else have a better idea of what this is or isn’t?

    • No specialist. But I think for an eruption this is too short a time lapse. To me, this looks more like an dyke intrusion.

      • Yeah, I figured if there were an eruption, it would be a phreatic eruption, although by now, there would likely be some mention of it. Interesting to think this may be a dike intrusion, especially for an interesting volcanic system.

        • That’s the main reason I’ve been keeping a watch on the seismograms. It erupts roughtly every 700-1000 years, and hasn’t erupted since 1180 + has shown increasing seismicity and activity since 2004. To me, it’s essentially that Columbian Pinatubo, with a lot of very similar traits.

  9. Hi Inge. Excellent post! In July 2011 actually i found out that the water went not only down to Myrdalssandur but also some (still a very tiny ammount) went down through Ermstur. Curiously when I went there last time, in Sep 2012 the whole place was smelling a lot of sulphur, something it usually it does not. That’s the most problematic exit of water for Katla, because the water flowing through the western side of the glacier would travel towards populated areas like Hvosvollur, but populations are prepared for that.

    Also I report that we are having a very warm winter here in south Iceland. Nearly no snow yet this winter in where I live (Grimsnes), this is unusual and thus I am not surprised that the glaciers are melting at this time of the year. Temperatures have been really high at the southern edges of the glaciers Myrdalsjokull and Vatnajokull. Also, nearly the whole Iceland has been above zero for the past couple of weeks, so I am not surprised to see a thaw in Askja. Just like winter, when the famous Askja expediction revealed nothing was at a time of really warm winds (by warm I mean bringing positive temperatures and a thaw) over the Icelandic highlands.

    Its sad this snowless winter… I have been going outside every day without my big winter jacket 🙂

      • Winter King will come, its only a bit delayed. It´s shure to come, like flu (see news today) and just like any next volcanc eruption happening soon… I think we will have one this summer. Only be prepared (see post on this fro last year).
        – I am (I think) but probably never enough … 😉
        Smell at Emstrur … not surprizing really … its next-door to so many active volcanoes and streams … and who knows if next one might pop up right there (two poor quality quakes there this afternoon!) But It can have dire consiquences on structures, dams and housing and ruin farmland towards Hvolsvöllur Village, if large volume eruption water goes down west from Godabunga, or from Katla proper (but Katla usually goes south-east) so its unusual eruption that can have most negative effect.

        • *summer = meant to write “this year”. Question is only if we are still in the current cycle of increased activity around Vatnajökull, having effect down to Katla area.

          • That “fro reminded me of a guy I worked with, this is the 70’s now he was a white dude,
            I mean lily white and had blond, but very nappy, curly hair. So he grows a fair ‘Fro.
            actually I was jealous as I had very dark( reddish tinged) nappy hair myself due to my Barbadian gr.gr.granma .But I had the blasted McCoy cowlick. so the best I could do was a pompadour, but Elvis hadn’t made his comeback yet, so i lived with slicking it down and controlling it he best I could.I was elated to get the first clear sign of the Anderson ( Grampa on mother ‘s side)hair loss YES! you have never met a happier bald guy.. I mostly go for short in winter shaved in summer..

          • Hé, I learnt something this morning. In French we say “une banane”, a banana for this Pompadour haircut style ! Mrs de Pompadour was one of the famous mistresses of King Louis XV….who had many.

          • Affirmative on the “Fro”, much funnier! 😉
            That fridge? Too cool off off course, dancing gets (….) one hot!

        • Well the Winter King of the Pacific NW has settled in we are expecting -15C over night with highs in the -1 to -3 C range… One day of thaw and back at it again, I don’t mind the cold as much as ice. that day of thaw made everything a skating rink. the
          snow is way too crusty now for good X-c skiing. I want my Champagne Powder Back!!!
          Wife is from Michigan and says this snow reminds her of what she is familiar with.
          except for the snow needs to be grimy with ah, yellow highlights..

  10. What a great reading, Inge!
    I’m still very busy to stop by and read all what I have missed and all the great posts and comments, but I must confess I couldn’t stop reading yours down to the end.
    Bedtime. Alas!
    Thank you people!

  11. Tomorrow is Friday.

    (This is a pre-emptive strike) From the Predatory series of movies:

    Take the concept over to a German Industrial band and you get “Pong”

    • Why is it, that in many of the self produced industrial dance videos… they are dancing near the refrigerator?

      And no refridgerator for panda girl… but oddly enough, she seems to have raised computer ventilation decking in her appartment, Well, that’s what it looks like. (common in server rooms and provides forced ventilation to keep the gear cool)

      • Lol!!!! My education is being widened here. I had to google Industrial Dance. I see what you mean though Lurking. Dance settings wether at home or in tunnels do seem to happen by vents!…… The costumes…or just plain clothes reminded me of Star Wars………
        Not quite Industrial but I do like a man in Uniform!!!!! ROFL!!!!! 😀 😀 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhUZmvAEIN4

  12. Iceland is way too quiet! Looking at Dyngjuhals there is certainly something providing turbulence under there! The weather too is not right. Here in the UK it has been strangely warm. I had to laugh when my son very seriously warned me that there was some “Freak” weather on the way for the UK. He had read about it in a paper. ” It’s going to be -15C and it’s going to snow”. I pointed out that this is really “Normal ” weather for January. It can be accepted. It is winter! Bless him though he was just worried about his old Mum and wanted me to stay safe and warm . I have just checked the met Office and Yes. here it is…..Quote ….Outlook for Sunday to Tuesday:

    Staying cold with further rain, sleet and snow affecting the UK. Wintry showers are expected each day, with widespread sleet and snow possible on Monday.
    Now to me That sounds OK! It’s going to snow. It’s going to be cold. Now if I check out our favourite Daily Fail, they are suffering from lack of Doomsday so we get this , again a Quote…..Freezing Britain: Siberian front brings ice, snow and -16C temperatures (but at least these skiers are enjoying themselves)
    Temperatures expected to dip from Sunday with frozen conditions bringing chaos to the roads later in the week

    Commuters pictured battling through heavy snow in Leeds, Newcastle and Lincolnshire
    AA warn drivers to be prepared for treacherous conditions and advise grit is ineffective below -9C ( How they got these photos before the event I am not sure!!!!!)

    Icy gusts from the east will bring a wind chill factor of -16C next week, according to Met Office forecasters
    Follows a week of transport chaos with airports closing and dramatic car crashes putting police officers and a boy of 11 into hospital

    They have used old stories and their choices of words to blow the whole thing out of proportion. Wind Chill -16C ? OK So wrap up warm. Use thermal underwear.
    If there is Ice? Yes! There will always be the idiots who take no precautions in bad driving conditions who will add to the road toll. Yes! The UK is notorious for coming to a stop at the first flake of snow. We expect that and make preparation.

    This is NOT freak weather. This is a normal winter high pressure that brings easterly winds and often snow from the continent. I remember 1947! 8 Weeks of below freezing temeperatures. Road and rail a ta standstill. No coal to fuel the powerstations or heating homes.. The sea froze over. The snowdrifts were so high my Dad and other men dug a tunnel so we could access the animals….I remember looking up at the beautiful blue light through the ice tunnel….It was very exciting, but BOY! Was our bedroom cold. No central heating then!…… Now THAT was a winter to remember. I wonder how we would cope with that today?

    • Leeds eh?

      The Leeds Devil was the Predecessor to the Jersey Devil.

      From the Wackipedia Article:

      It was said that Mother Leeds had 13 children and, after giving birth to her 12th child, stated that if she had another, it would be the Devil. In 1735, Mother Leeds was in labor on a stormy night. Gathered around her were her friends. Mother Leeds was supposedly a witch and the child’s father was the Devil himself. The child was born normal, but then changed form. It changed from a normal baby to a creature with hooves, a horse’s head, bat wings and a forked tail. It growled and screamed, then killed the midwife before flying up the chimney. It circled the villages and headed toward the pines. In 1740 a clergy exorcised the demon for 100 years and it wasn’t seen again until 1890.

      • ROFL!!! Well Leeds is in the County of Yorkshire!
        I live in Lancashire the other side of the Pennine hills. Lancastrians and Yokists have been at each other’s throats since 1455…..It was called the War of the rRoses. Red for the Lancastrians and White roses for the Yorkists. Henry Tudor the Lancastrian Noble who claimed the English Crown defeated Richard lll. …..And so we ended up with Henry Vlll and Elizabeth l
        Now the wars of the Roses still continues in playful derogatory comments about each other such as mine above, and of course there is an annual battle on the Cricket field between lancashire and Yorkshire cricket clubs!

        After 11 children I guess the 12th was a mouth too much to feed………….I wonder what REALLY happened to start off this story? (I don’t think the Daily Fail had been started then!)

          • Well, he alledgedly whacked the midwife and flew up the chimney.

            Not typical of newborn infant behavior… so they may have figured that was a bit odd.

            While I was stationed in New Jersey, I spent a stormy night reading on the lore of the Jersey Devil.

            The layout of Pine Barrens was already familiar to me. We don’t calle them “barrens” but we have amply stands of pine down here in the SouthEast.

            The Jersey Devil and Springheel Jack tales were rivoting.

            …He escaped conviction only because Jane Alsop insisted her attacker had breathed fire, and Millbank admitted he could do no such thing. Most of the other accounts were written long after the date; contemporary newspapers do not mention them….

    • Wow Diana! You remember 1947!! I have heard of that bad winter but I wasn’t born until 2 years later. I remember 1963 though when even the South Coast had the sea freeze. And where was I? Up in Scotland where although it was very cold we didn’t have the snow the South had. I do remember my dad being unable to get home from work though and having to sleep in the factory. Also remember a cup of cocoa left beside my bed was frozen solid in the morning. Cold houses in those days! Oh happy days. 😉

    • Happy New Year, Diana!
      I was watching this film starring Judy Dench, and somehow you came up to my mind. Somehow I think you two look alike. 🙂
      I’ve been to Europe for two weeks eager for a snowfall, but all I got was some rain, and, of course, plenty of snow accumulated on the Alps. I spent a great time in Austria with my “European family”.
      Nice to be back!

      • The late 1940’s early 50’s in the Pac NW US we had very nasty winters. Remember
        my Pop having to plant Barley due to wheat crop failures. Before I was Born there was a few times he got the Milk to town via Sleigh pulled by his Clydesdales .

      • Welcome back Renato. Judy Dench is one of my role models. A remakable woman. I saw her first Live in Stratford Upon Avon playing Portia in “A merchant of Venice” She must have been just out of Drama School then…I was with a school party. She was amazing then as she is now. I feel very flattered to be associated with her even if it is only in your ind 😀 😀

  13. OT : “Timber” (Yes, thats just me felling the last years Christmas tree). I then cut it up with hacksaw, put in a black bag(s), load up in car, and dump at appropriate re-cycling station. And “my” (ours) tree was a Darwin Event. It was cut to make room for others.

  14. Timelapse of Tolbachik yesterday (from 14:30GMT until this morning ~ 9am)…. I need to figure out how to add timestampts in the timelapse.

    It would appear that the volcanoe was more active at night..but it was very cloudy during the day, and the sunlight ruins the view in teh morning..but i think the camera switches to infrared at night time, i think this exagerates the activitity

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