While we are pondering the deep magmatic earthquakes that are taking place under the Harðurátungusprungu I thought we should teach the news media that there are many volcanoes in Iceland.
Some newspapers seem to only know about Katla and perhaps Lakí, and if they are really spiffy they might have heard about Hekla. A few days ago I mentioned that 40 percent of all eruptions in the last 1 000 years came out of two volcanoes, namely Grimsvötn and Hekla and that by adding 3 more volcanoes for the same time period (Askja, Bárdarbunga and Katla) would get you up to 90 percent.
So, in theory the Daily Fail would get it correct if they just harped those five names in their doomsday prophecies. We of course know that is not correct, there are those pesky ten percent remaining, and in most aspects they are the most interesting.
As some of you know I collect Icelandic volcanoes, after all a man just got to have a hobby in this life. So I thought I would present my collection of Icelandic volcanoes. I will only count volcanoes that have erupted after the last glacial, or during the absolute end of the Ice age.
First, almost all Icelandic volcanoes are arranged along something called a fissure swarm. In most aspects the fissure swarms are the volcanoes. But some of them form what is called central volcanoes; they are permanent weak spots that have formed a separate magmatic system with magma chambers. There are also other types of volcanoes in Iceland, for instance those that have only erupted once and might become a central volcano, and then we have rhyolitic fields.
So, to organize things a bit I will start down in the southwest and move up to Hengill, then I will go northeast up almost to Vatnajökull, then jump back to Hengill and move over to Hekla, then start over at Vestmannaeyjar and go upwards to Grimsöy. To further organize things I will put the fissure swarm in bold, central volcanoes in Italic, and other volcanic features in plain text. I might also put in a comment or two. Remember, these are the ones known to have erupted.
Now, let us take a plunge out into the depth of the Atlantic Ocean and visit the place where the last of the Geirfugl was stomped to death before being fried and their eggs was cooked.
Mid Atlantic Rift / Reykjanes Ridge, Unnamed volcano, Geirfugl, Eldey. There are most likely at least two more volcanoes out there.
Svartsengi, Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Eldvorp. These three are believed to have independent magmatic systems, but they lack normal features for a central volcano, instead they erupt in within their own separate fissure systems.
Krísúvik, Krísúvik. This volcanic fissure runs from the coast up to Reykjavik where in passes quite literally on the backdoor of the Capital of Iceland. Eruptions have occurred both along fissures, and in the central volcano.
Brennisteinsfjöll, Brennisteinsfjöll. This volcano has a central magmatic system, but erupts as a fissure volcano.
Hengill, Hengill, Hromundartindur, Prestahnukur. To that count should also be added no less than 6 shield volcanoes. The massive Hengill volcanic fissure swarm stands for some of the largest volcanic eruptions on Iceland. It both erupts along the fissure swarm, from the central volcano, and along fissures emanating from the central volcano, often at the same time.
Langjökull, Langjökull & Hveravellir, Geysir. Even though Geysir has not erupted since the last Ice age I still mention it due to it having an active separate magma system. The Langjökull fissure swarm also has 7 shield volcanoes.
Grimsnes, Grimsnes. Iceland’s smallest fissure swarm.
Hofsjökull, Hofsjökull & Kerlingafjöll. Even though Kerlingafjöll probably have not erupted since last Ice age I leave I put in since it is believed to have an active magmatic system.
Tungnafellsjökull, Hágöngur, Tungnafellsjökull & Vonarskard. Although neither of the central volcanoes have had an eruption since the last glacial they still all have active magmatic systems. Also, I leave them in since there have been eruptions from this fissure swarm after the last Ice age.
Southern Icelandic Fracture Zone, This is an oddity among the Icelandic volcanic fissure swarms. It is mainly a tectonic feature, but still it have erupted after the last glacial. There is one small central volcano marked in the maps at the western end of the SIFZ, and there are also rhyolitic fields at the northeastern end.
Hekla, Hekla, Litlu Hekla. The Hekla fissure swarm is the only volcanic feature in Iceland being able to erupt two different lavas altogether. While the Hekla and Litlu Hekla have erupted andesitic lavas the rest of the swarm erupts baseline Icelandic basalt. Hekla is the second volcanic fissure to start forming a stratovolcano in the area, the first attempt is still believed to be active even though it has not erupted since the end of the glacial.
Vestmannaeyjar. The Vestmannaeyjar fissure swarm does not have any central volcanoes, even though a magmatic system exists under The Heimaey Island. The most well known volcanic features on the swarm are of course Surtsey and Eldféll.
Eyjafjallajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, Fímmvörduháls. I put in Fímmvörduháls here even though the origin of the lava that started the 2010 eruption has a slightly dubious origin.
Myrdalsjökull, Katla, Gódabunga & Éldgja. Right outside the edge of the Katla Caldera sits the well known Gódabunga crypto-dome, even though it has not erupted historically it has had several large magmatic intrusions during the last 15 years. The Éldgja rifting fissure eruption is the largest known magmatic eruption from the Myrdalsjökull fissure swarm.
Tindfjallajökull, Tindfjallajökull. Little is known about Tindfjallajökull, it has though suffered one of the largest known explosive eruptions in Iceland. This was though before the last glacial ended.
Vatnafjöll, Vatnafjöll. Vatnafjöll was up until slightly before settlement one of the most notoriously erupting volcanoes in Iceland. It is the source of numerous flood basalts and have created an elongated fissure volcano over a massive magmatic system.
Veidivötn, Torfajökull, Jökulsheimar, Hámarinn, Bárdarbunga & Kistufell, Veidivötn, Vatnaöldur, Odhadhahraun, Thjorsáhraun & Trölladyngja. The largest and most powerful of all the Icelandic fissure swarms The Veidivötn has no less than two VEI-6 central volcanoes, and in the southern end we find the massive Veidivötn rifting fissure eruptive conglomerate swarm and the adjacent Vatnaöldur rifting fissure eruptive conglomerate. The fissure swarm starts at the large Torfajökull caldera central volcano and ends up north of the massive Trölladyngja shield volcano. From Bárdarbunga northward you have Kistufell believed to be the hypocenter of the Icelandic hotspot. This fissure swarm has erupted 3 out of 5 of the largest postglacial basalt floods on the planet.
Veidivötn fissure swarm has the largest prolonged amount of magmatic uplift in Iceland, and is currently suffering from a magmatic sill intrusions at Harðurátungusprungu (there is actually no known name for this place so “Hard on the tongue fissure” is as good a name as any).
Askja/Fögrufjöll, Loki/Fögrufjöll, Hruthalsar. The fissure swarm starts between the Veidivötn fissure swarm and the Grimsvötn fissure swarm down south and extends well beyond the Askja central volcano up to Hruthalsar volcano.
Herdubreid. A central volcano that last erupted during the absolute last stages of glaciation or perhaps slightly afterwards. It is sometimes claimed to be a central volcano on the Askja fissure swarm, something that is highly dubious since it is situated far outside the known eastern boundary. It is also called in the literature for Iceland’s only fissure less volcano.
Grimsvötn, Eldgigur, Hágöngur, Geirvörtur, Thordharhyrna, Háabunga, Grimsvötn, Kverkfjöll & Upptyppingar, Lakí. This is the second most eruptive volcanic fissure. It is the home to the massive nested caldera volcano of Grimsvötn that had its last VEI-6 eruption 10 000 years ago. Infamous for having had the deadliest eruption in the history of mankind. This fissure swarm has erupted 1 of the 5 largest postglacial basalt floods on the planet.
Snaefell, Öraefajökull, Esjufjöll, Breidabunga, Godahnukur & Snaefell. This fissure swarm also has quite a few highly rhyolitic fissures that have erupted since the end of the glacial. Öraefajökull has had the largest explosive eruption during the last 1 000 years in Iceland.
Frémrinamur, Frémrinamur & Hljodáklettar. Perhaps not the most active of Iceland’s fissure swarms.
Krafla, Namafjall, Krafla,Gjastykki & Jökularsandur . Most known for the late Krafla Fires eruption where a series of fissures opening up providing spectacular but non explosive fire curtaining. The Krafla central volcano though shows signs of having had a couple of more explosive turns previously.
Theistareykjarbunga, Theistareykjarbunga, Theistareykir. This fissure swarm has had the 1 of the 5 largest basalt flood eruptions since the last Ice age. As it produced the Theistareykjarbunga central volcano it at the same time produced the large Theistarekjahraun flood basalt, the eruptions total effusion is between 35 and 50 cubic kilometers of dense rock equivalent. The volcano have been inflating since 2007.
North of Iceland there are several sub aquatic nameless volcanoes that has erupted since human settlement on the island. And now over to the westernmost volcanic fissure swarm on Iceland.
Snaefellsness, Snaefellsness, Ljosjufjöll, Lysuskard.
I hope that you all liked this little walk down the volcanoes of Iceland. And if you work for the Daily Fail and actually read this. Please understand this, even a large eruption in Iceland would not even be close to the end of the world, so stay away from scaring people unduly.
NtV RIDDLE (2)
2 points for each volcano … no deeply nasty clues this week … let the Googling commence …
No 1 – An untimely, weather related alliance with some paratrechina longicornis added to the mass destruction. SOLVED Santa Ana (Hurricane Stan)
No 2 – Deadly nobleman who waxes lyrical about a short list, bluebells & a small bird. SOLVED Koko Seamount
No 3 – Right Honourable Fabian Society member & erstwhile pacifist who lost his first position in 1918. SOLVED Macdonald
No 4 – Despite suffering a twisted colon he directed both sides of the story. SOLVED Mount Suribachi
No 5 – Alternative name for an ethnic group, native to an East African Rift Valley Lake … linking Ethiopia and Iceland. SOLVED Laki
No 6 – Although now known as fertile, according to the older local farmers it is still a deeply unhappy place. SOLVED Mount Liamuiga (Mount Misery)
No 7 – No champagne for Jean-Claude following his first descent. SOLVED Mount Ngauruhoe
CURRENT POINTS TABLE:
inannamoon667 1 Random Joe 1 KarenZ 1 mdatc 1
381 thoughts on “Edificating the Daily Fail and Friday’s NtV Riddle!”
Volcano #5 Katla Katla tribe North East Africa
Volcano #6 Mount Liamuiga on the Island of St Kitts Used to be known as Mount Misery.
DING! 2 points Diana for Mount Liamuiga (Mount Misery) No 6…. oh and good morning too!
Oh My! Good morning Kilgarrah…erm! I took your name in vain below 😀
Volcano #7 La Soufriere jean- Claude Sallot a speiologist descended intoTarissan pit for the first time to sample the water. This was a pit NOT a cave ( Cave Bubbly wine NOT champagne)…
OK! OK! I need more coffee and to get some house work done….. this is getting silly 😀 😀 😀
“KILGHARRAH was cited in the Diana Barnes Divorce as enticing her away from housewifely duties and not keeping the home in good order.”
Grinning … wrong Jean-Claude … this one specialises in going down hills very fast!
This tribe live on the shores and the islands of a lake in Ethiopia … and it is their alternative name that matches one of our most talked about volcanoes!
GOOD LUCK TO THE LIONS!
no 4. Mount Suribachi, Clint Eastwood directed two films about World War II’s Battle of Iwo Jima.
You’re on form Alison … DING! 2 points for Mount Suribachi No 4
no 7. Mount Ngauruhoe
In 1974, as part of a promotional campaign for his sponsor Moët & Chandon, champion skier Jean-Claude Killy was filmed skiing down the previously unskied eastern slope of the mountain. The average slope on this side of the volcano is 35 degrees, and Killy was caught on radar skiing more than 100 miles per hour. As he fell on the first run, he did the descent twice.
Yep … No 7 Mount Ngauruhoe and Jean-Claude Killy’s failed first attempt at filming for Moet & Chandon …. DING! 2 points for Alison
Well done Alison… I suggest you keep this name…. It’s no longer a Newby brain… it’s become all convoluted like most of the brains in here :D… maybe they are warped by incessant questioning of things that so far have no answers:D
Ummm ‘Newby’ aka ‘Alicia’ is now ‘Frances’ ….
I’ve been Alison all along 😀 I do have a warped brain though.
OOOps 😳 Sorry, deepest apologies Alison.. But congratulations 🙂 My brain is more addled that warped I think 🙂 It’s all the name changing is very confusing for me.
Wow what a game! First blood to the lucky Lions ….. Yeah!
Close run match. Alas i couldn’t watch it – don’t have SKY because of Murdoch – but kept up on rolling feed on BBC.
I watched it in between VC duties … I think the Wallabies will be feeling a touch hard done by!
Hi everyone, hope you’re enjoying your weekends! 🙂 Whilst researching the riddles, I came across this blog by Dave McGarvie which looks quite decent. Posts aren’t very frequent but are interesting, I’ve provided a link to an older post below for those interested … apologies if already posted:
Hey Inannamoon667 hope you’re having a great weekend!
And No 1 is still awaiting an answer … some extra hints below!
Hi Kilgharrah, it’s a tough one or perhaps I just need more coffee 😉
5. Found it at last! It’s Laki
The Zay are a small ethnic group of about 5,000 people in Ethiopia. They are also known as the Laki. They live on the islands of Lake Zway, south of Addis Ababa, and engage mainly in fishing.
DING! YEA! Well done Alison … somehow it seems mean to only award you 2 points for this one after all your searching! No 5 is definitely Laki!
now for the blooming crazy ant, not getting anywhere there really unless it’s to do with the infestation of Hawaii’s volcano national park with the little beggars
Definitely nothing to do with the infestation … see a couple of hints below!
Instead of looking for tribes and trying to link them to a volcano. I looked at volcanoes and tried to link them to a tribe. It was easier that way, after all I don’t think there would be an Ethiopian tribe called Theistareykjarbunga. Saying that, I hope it’s right!
If there is a tribe called Theistareyjkarbunga they sure as heck wont pronounce it properly!
No 1 was my favourite clue of the week and it is still unsolved!
So No 1 …
Two hints …
Read clue carefully … look for a hidden anagram …
I’ve had it in the anagram solver for a while , must try again
Hard to help any further without giving it away!
Ok, so what are some paratrechina longicornis … then put the answer into the context of weather … that is the first thing to work out!
Not part of riddle … I have a horrible feeling you’re not going to like me very much when this has finally been solved … grinning sheepishly!
I’ve got as far as that they are longhorn crazy ants…..I need to convolute more.
Great … first person to identify them as crazy ants … here’s another hint … the dlue started with some ‘crazy antS’ rather than some ‘paratrechina longicornis’ …
I’ve been trying since yesterday to do an anagram with a variety of ant(s)/crazy/mass/wea(t)her but no joy so far
No need to convolute!
See below …
I said ‘crazy ants’ back at https://volcanocafe.wordpress.com/2013/06/20/edificating-the-daily-fail/comment-page-1/#comment-93550
Should have read …
Great … you’re first person to identify them in the plural as crazy ants … here’s another hint … the original clue was worded some ‘crazy antS’ rather than some ‘paratrechina longicornis’ …
System wont let me edit for some reason … sigh
You don’t need the anagram solver for this one …. crazy antS!
Eldey was mentioned in the post, so here’s a crazy Icelandic webcam from the island.
Thank heaven that they have not invented “smell-o-vision” yet!!
Amazing, the best webcam on Iceland shows birds pooping instead of volcanoes 🙂
What a horrible thought … but stunning birds!
Having a good weekend .. ?
It seems like I got bounces when I emailed you before going…
Hmmm nothing came through from you so I just carried on as normal!
Not sure why the gmail wasn’t working for you … there doesn’t seem to be a problem generally.
I am trying again with a testmail.
Not bad, thanks! You .. ?
Drying out both internally and externally from the meteorological and hospitality excesses of Paris. Next trip is São Paulo, so I hope things quieten down there a bit. Looking forward to it, though. Never been to South America (do the Falklands count?? 🙂 🙂 )
Oh .. and a very spawny win this morning!
Was a great game to watch … but as you say … the Lions were very lucky!
Bring on Wanayama … COYR
Askja, Herdubreid, Katla, Kistufell, Pálsfjöll (Manuel), Vatnafjöll, Trölladyngja.
Welcome to the silly season of magmatic intrusions…
4 of the 7 places receiving magmatic intrusions have not erupted for 10 000 years.
22.06.2013 14:01:37 64.298 -18.011 13.4 km 0.1 99.0 23.1 km SSW of Hamarinn
And as I wrote that we start to have deep quakes under the edge in the southwestern corner of the Vatnajökul glacier.
Ok Carl … for those of us less informed/intelligent … how are you recognising magmatic intrusions from just plain minor EQ swarms … please!
Hum… I should probably write a post on this…
Two reasons really. First of all you have the depth. If it is deep enough it is a telltale sign that it is due to magma formation. Then I check on the length of the event, a magmatic quake has an unusually long duration compared to the size of the earthquake. Ie, they are long period (LP) events.
I cheet and check on more detailed data than is publically available.
The quakes I am interested in are between 25 and 18 km for the Vatnajökull area, and 20-15km for the Myrdalsjökull area.
Cheers … and I reckon I wont be alone in thinking that it would be great to have a post on this subject …. again please!
It’ll be coming in the Laki series on how the magma formed there. I will put it in relation to what we are seeing now.
I should probably also say that we are seeing more deep LP quakes now then we have seen for 3 years combined, and I have never seen them at so many places at the same time. So, I think we are seeing the start of a fissure swarm event. If it is the Veidivötn fissure swarm, or as it seems right now the Askja swarm we will have to wait and see. I think that right now we have to wait untill the picture gets clearer.
Iceland most certainly has a bad rash at the moment!
Carl, Manuel is the spot east of Bardarbunga and north of Grimsvotn, the crazy unexpected spot. Palsfjoll is the spot further southwest of Grimsvotn, south of Hamarinn (but I think this last one has not had deep quakes yet). Still, yeah its a lot of intrusions.
Thank Irpsit for clearing that one up!
Then Manuel is Manuel and nothing else 🙂
Yepp, most of the quakes have been shallow at Pálsfjöll except this one:
22.06.2013 14:01:37 64.298 -18.011 13.4 km 0.1 99.0 23.1 km SSW of Hamarinn
No 1. Santa Anna
In October, 2005, the volcano erupted, killing at least two people, injuring seven people, forcing many people to flee their villages. The volcano spat rocks for over 1.5 km (0.93 mi) with rocks the size of cars. The eruption contributed to the damage from Hurricane Stan.
YEA! DING! …. omg that one has caused so much trouble! Very well done …. No 1 Santa Ana …. 2 points Frances
😀 And I was looking at crazy ants as St An, checked out Santa Anna and yep the light went on. I hadn’t spotted the Stan for the hurricane even though it was staring me in the face!!! DOH! 😳
I could not think of any more hints without giving the whole thing away! You did very well …
Glad you got that, I was trying to decide which Santa it was. I can get on with other things now.
Grinning! I get just as involved when setting the sodding clues!
You wont forget ‘crazy ants’ in a while!
We may not be ants but it drove quite a few of us volcano fans pretty crazy!
This is where I grin and say that is the general idea!
many Icelandic tremor graphs between the period (roughly) of 6-17 through 6-18, A review of meteorlogical conditions don’t indicate any storms, and no major earthquakes accurred either.
Any help from the “more experienced” in helping to explain the spike and what it may (or may not) be indicating would be greatly appreciated?
Did you look to the athmospheric low pressure-high pressure? I think a low pressure passing by can give such result, but I’m also only a beginner.
It is weather related. This is not related to any harmonic tremor. It happens now and then.
That or road works. 😉
Nah, this is definitly weather. The stations showing the most influence are those closest to shore, so what we are seeing are actually large atlantic waves pounding away.
Gales around most of the UK coast so I would expect it to have a knock on effect of large sea swell in the South of Iceland.
Thanks Carl and Frances. That explains it.
Seen the wave effect (i.e. subterranean sound/compressional wave propogation)
many times at El Hierro, but didn’t realize that such a large area as Iceland could be similarly affected. Here in San Francisco,local seismometers certainly respond to increased wave activity (sometimes 40’+)as well, but rarely (IMHO) beyond only a few miles inland from the coast. Obviously, our geology is very different than Iceland’s, and sound travels better/worse depending on the medium it moves through.
I wonder, could there have been some type of “resonance” at work, since the swells were from far away, and likely longer period (lower frequency) than usual? If so, might there be any information to be gained by analyzing how different locations respond to a common primary frequency?
Or, is the wave action just pure “white” noise and it’s just louder than hell down there when theres a storm-a-brewin’?
Did some more homework (should have doen this first), and came across this recent article on how seismic signals (microseisms) were detected across the U.S. from super-storm Sandy.
Obviously, my local siesmic data interpretations were wayyyyyyyyyyy off the mark regarding how far inland wave-induced siesmic energy can be reliably detected.
In this interesting article, there is also mention that “standing wave” energy(phasing) formed by colliding waves in the ocean were getting transmitted to the ocean floor, and were the most detectable/energetic, (and not neccesarily wave collision with the coast…very counter-intuitive). So, I wonder if in the recent event in Iceland, maybe it wasn’t so much waves hitting the Icelandic coast that caused the sound level increase, but rather from open-ocean sounds?
Also, by using some basic earthquake location techniques, they were able to re-trace Sandy’s location and direction based on the seismic signals.
As far as microseisms and earthquake correlation, it is mentioned as a theory, but clearly this is an outlier theory with little data to support(i.e. basically unfounded) at this time.
Some volcanoes are hyped more than others. Katla is hyped because it supposedly “erupts after Eyjafjallajökull does”. There is insufficient evidence to back this up. Also, Katla has had some significant eruptions, and it has been dormant longer than “usual”. If a volcano is dormant for a long time or is dormant for longer than its “eruption cycle” than it is overdue(Yowlerstone). How is a volcano overdue? Volcanoes are chaotic and unpredictable by nature, so how can they fit into a cycle? If volcanoes are unpredictable, how can a volcano be overdue? It can erupt before its supposedly “due” or far after. I do not understand the Katla hype.
You are welcome, I do not understand the hype either.
It is a volcano, it will erupt sooner or later, and it will most likely be a mid-sized eruption. I do not for the life of me get how it got known as the Doomsday volcano of Iceland…
It is supposedly “overdue” for a new eruption. The Icelandic president publicized it.
Well, it was kind of a joke from him. Problem was that he is mostly used to Icelanders, and they understand that it was a joke since pretty much all of Iceland is always overdue… But, the world press did not get the joke…
They didn’t. To them they thought an eruption was imminent. For some reason, the press does not look for credible information or consult with a geologist. Instead they decide their own fearmongering is sufficient to be news. They make a scare about some volcanoes. The rest of them are ignored. Tragic.
I have met him 🙂 (honest!!)
A complete and utter ………. politician!!
Its only a problem for Iceland for two small things: people with summerhouses near Myrdalsjokull would have to deal with that, and people from a few towns like Vik would have to be evacuated and probably the ring road would be destroyed by a flood in that region. Other than that, an eruption is always a minor annoyance in Iceland, except if it is something like Laki or something like the Westman Islands (eruption fissure opening right in a populated area).
I agree. Looking at the low depths of the earthquakes and the low magnitude 0. this 0. that This is thermal activity and eruption does not seem soon based on the numbers. Godabunga, Bardabunga, some Grimsvotn and sometimes Hamarin numbers seem to be coming in at lower depths. This is just an observation. Can anyone verify this?
Here is the Earthquake animation for Iceland from May 1st to June 20th.
Event by event animation, the rank of the event is shown according to the left side of the colorbar. Terrain elevation is shown on the right side of the colorbar.
Size of the circle is proportional to earthquake magnitude.
Data from IMO and NOAA.
It is an old piece of code, it’ll get better next time.
You are such a star dfm … thanks!!!!!
From a brown dwarf to Class O3, how does star dfm rank on the spectral classification scale?
B …. blue/white … and very twinkly!
I would think dfm would be an O3. If the posters here were astronomical objects, what would they be? Would like some input.
I’d be a O-Class. That sadly comes with the issue of your short life, due to the star running out of fuel. I would find a solution to that. A machine that creates hydrogen. I would need to seriously fireproof it. 33,000 kelvin isn’t easy to stand. Then I will overclock it to hell. Then, I will live forever.
I went a bit too far. In short, an O class.
Ignore the part after the first sentence of paragraph 2. Got to stop rambling.
I’d like to be Sirius!
I’m a star!
Nice one 🙂
I would be dying to see a plot for the “Fissure zones” of Bardarbung, Askja and Grimsvötn…
It is remarkable what 2 pizzas and 4 liter of cola can do with a hangover… Now I feel that I will survive sailing back home from the country of Stoneyard. We just have to wait for Flyboy to stop being green behind the gills.
A bit OT but a nice old Documentary about the Hawaiian volcanoes:
And here is a newer one with a bit of info on the new island forming.
From about 10:00 there are some awesome minutes of footages from fissure eruptions, also what happens if Lava cuts through the watertable at a location (phreatic explosions)
The other day, someone questioned whether the ice loss from a glacier could instigate an eruption. The short answer, yes. But it is a bit more complicated than that. At the depth of many magma chambers, say, 20 km, the confining pressure is around 529.5591 MPa. This is based on a density of 2700 km/m³ for the overlying rock. (average). Ice has a density of around 916.7 kg/m³. 10 meters of it exert an additional confining pressure of about 0.0899 MPa.
At 20 km depth, that is an additional 0.02%. 500 meters of ice → 0.85% additional force at 20 km depth.
For the sake of argument, say that the yearly fluctuation of the icecap is 10 meters. That gives you a 0.02% variation in pressure over the course of a year, at 20 km depth.
Now, the way an eruption works, according to what I have read, is that as the pressure increases in the chamber, building up from fresh magma intrusion or crystallization in the chamber (which removes available volume for the melt to reside in) the wall of the chamber fails once it overcomes the tensile strength of the ambient rock. This is a hoop stress failure. A crack opens up (which makes a quake, probably a long period “wet” one) and the finger of melt travels out along the crack, taking up the new space and lessening the chamber pressure. If the chamber pressure drops below the hoop stress failure level of the confining rock, everything quiets down. If not, then the stress can focus at the tip of the crack and continuie to open it up in a series of progressing tiny quakes.
Now.. for something quite important. Remember, it is essentially hoop stress failure that occurs. That is where the tensile strength of the rock has been exceeded. I don’t have solid data, but Basalt fiber (artificially produced) has a strength of 4.84 GPa. For comparison, rebar steel is 0.5 GPa. While digging that out, I found that basalt fiber is used in some composites and is easier to produce than carbon fiber (3.62 to 6.21 GPa). This means that you can actually get a camera tripod that is in part, made of basalt.
This is where my rumination jumps the tracks and wanders off down into the swamp. How the confining pressure affects the tensile strength of the rock escapes me. On one hand, it should serve to increase the strength of the rock, but then, the melt in the chamber is also under that same stress so the meaningfulness of it should balance out (for the most part). Leaving you with whatever effects the temperature has on tensile strength to deal with. But point of fact, the yearly variation in ice cover is pretty damn near insignificant at magma chamber depths.
How deglaciation affects the chamber, is in the area of decompression melting, and how fast it goes on. At this point some one more knowledgeable than I has to pick up the topic if they wish.
Have a safe flight Carl.
Nah, I am not going to fly…. Flyboy is far to green in the face, and on occation he talks to Alarik the Great Barbarian very loudly… I have never seen anything that hungover before. He has slept all day out on the foredeck of the boat.
So, we are waiting for him to be coherent, and in a shape that can be fed a bit of pizza and a few liters of cola. When that is done we will put out to sea and sail home.
Normally I would not mind flying with him, he is one of our more decorated fighter jet pilots, although he is currently hardly even fit to drive the porcelain bus.
Just give him the fighter pilot’s breakfast* Then he will be OK!!
* one cup of coffee and two ibuprofen.
We tried that… It is now a part of the fish feed in the harbour…
Pizza and cola second attempt will most likely make him more movable. First attempt five hours ago made some seagulls happy…
🙂 I see. Since the Cold War is over you Swedes just don’t take the training of your first line of national defence quite as seriously as you did in the old days. At least you can count on your vassals (oops…Finns) to keep you safe until everyone else has sobered up!!
Even flyboys get vacation now and then…
Currently he is at least eating so in a couple of hours we should be able to leave port. It will be a speed record attempt going home. Current weather is a bit frisky with average wind speed of 11m/s with gusts up towards 17m/s. So, we should be at home sometime early in the morning, lunchtime latest.
Bon voyage – very jealous!! I love the Baltic – not done the Finnish experience but I have done the Latvian-registered ferry back from Riga full of Swedes out for a ‘good time’. I should place it on record that myself, the best aviation journalist ever born (a Scot), and my wonderful Irish friend were the last humans still standing on that ferry, and that probably included the crew!
Psst… Carl. “Red Right Returning”
According to an old C-130 crewman, the best remedy for a hangover is O2. Worked everytime for them. You could tell who had been out partying by who was sucking on the O2 system while still on the tarmac.
Short term only, believe me!. You’ll feel worse for it in the long run.
LOL, Rename the VolcanoCafe to VolcanicPub. Great to see allot of great memory’s created for you guys.
Well, it’s the weekend. And Midsommar. Please forgive us reliving a few past glories as we gaze vacantly into the distance from the comfy chair in the day-room……. “Nurse! Nurse???!!!”
If we are lucky we will get to a day care center with a bar…
Now time to start prepping to get lost at sea… 🙂
May the road rise up to meet you.
May the wind always be at your back.
May the sun shine warm upon your face,
and rains fall soft upon your fields.
And until we meet again,
May God hold you in the palm of His hand.
I gather that the headache part of the hangover is the liver sucking in water from the rest of the body to let it metabolise the alcohol, unfortunately the brain holds a lot of water and when the liver sucks some of the water up it effectively shrinks the brain slightly, but that’s tied to the outside of our skulls, so the pain is caused by the outside of your skull pulling on the brain that is shrinking inside.
Best solution for that – extra water – to rehydrate and ‘inflate’ the brain again.
A plot for EQs for Vatnajökull region: http://en.vedur.is/earthquakes-and-volcanism/earthquakes/vatnajokull/
It covers Bardabunga, Grimsvotn, Askja and Herdubreid.
PS the thumbnail is an image from NASA of the Grimsvotn eruption plume in 2011.
Great … thanks Karen
One could both see the stacks well, and also see that almost all the action is withing the same fissure swarm. All those quakes are confind into a very narrow field. I think we are seeing rifting 🙂
Probably. if you look at the map of Iceland as a whole, the action is following the pattern of the plate boundaries. Catch up after a fairly quiet period?
For the news papers. Rifting could take, days to years before any of the hot stuff starts to flow. Usual pick up point for the brown bag of money guys. 😀
Mainly aimed at Carl, and is essentially a continuation of my June 22, 2013 at 21:43 post.
As noted, when a finger of magma overcomes the tensile strength of rock, it can fracture by driving the two sides apart and making a crack, then flowing in to occupy the newly formed space. This event should be normal mode faulting. Using the data in Wells-Coppersmith (1994) and the formula for the area of a cone, we can get an idea of how much additional volume is created as the formative sill or dike begins to work it’s way out of the “chamber”. Remember, that the progress of the finger of magma will stop when the chamber pressure drops below that required to overcome the strength of the rock.
Plotting the calcs for magnitudes 0.5 to 4.0, then fitting a log curve to them, you get this:
“New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area, and Surface Displacement” Wells – Coppersmith (1994)
Once you get up into the larger quakes, the concern is going to be more along the lines of “Did the fracture open a path to the surface?” rather than volume change. Wells-Coppersmith provides a “down dip rupture width” calculation, coupled with the depth of the quake you can work out the possibilities.
WARNING: This is a 100% amateur derived plot and may be a full on corruption of the ideas presented in Wells-Coppersmith.
Your mileage may vary.
My Saturday falls into the category of full on boring. I am not a fan of road races. Earlier they televised part of the La Mans, and then later they did NASCAR’s cheap arsed imitation of a road race at “Road Atlanta.” I took the time to make breakfast, go shopping, and work out this follow-on post. That’s how thrilling the Road Atlanta race was. It was about as exciting as watching Interstate traffic from an overpass.
However, I did receive some justification for one of my opinions from the La Mans race. One of the drivers had to have an extended pit-stop because of a bad alternator. I had a bad alternator a couple of weeks ago. It took every bit of 15 minute to change it out. On the La Mans car, they had to split the chassis, and remove the alternator from inside the gear box. Leave it to an engineer to really screw up a design. Allegedly, putting it in the gear box saves them a couple of horsepower… but it cost them several positions when they had to go through that cluster@#$@# to replace it when it went bad.
The culinary speciality of Le Mans is a sort of paté called Rillettes. A delicacy.
Usually you eat them spread on bread with some pickled Gherkin (the French type is more vinegary and of a smaller variety than the german or polish ones)
And it tastes like heaven… A not to have wine to it… Yum… 🙂
A Point Of View: Solstice and the lack of symbolism in Britain, same in Ireland.
My point of view is that it is too often WET in Britain to enjoy any outdoor festivities. This midsummer being a case in point. I spent the whole day indoors doing housework as it was too cold and wet to do much else. Gale force 8 winds and rain don’t make for a happy al fresco meal. 😉
Maybe it was better further from the coast though.
There was no sun, again, at Stonehenge this midsummer. The pagans I have met who frequent the place seem to fall into roughly two groups: those who belong to a ‘church’ (for want of a better word) and follow strict rules set down by a bunch of ‘elders/priests’ which is every bit as prescriptive as any of the established churches’ rules; and those who make it up as they go along and do their own thing, grabbing bits and pieces from any culture or religion. Both groups are intolerant of each other and anyone who thinks differently. (There are exceptions of course – I speak of the general impression they give).
OT. Anyone who has missed the episode, viewing available below.
Rise of the continents, Part 2.
Well worth buying on Blu-Ray.
That does seem to be one of the better ones. Three thumbs up!
This one actually notes how the water gets into the magma. You don’t see that mentioned too often.
Seen the ones on Africa and Australia so far. Do you know when the one on Eurasia will be shown on the BBC?
It has been shown, as far as I know the Australia show was the Eurasia one. On the link above, it also covers the America’s in another video.
Could be tonight or next week?? confused.com again.. 😦
anyway, enjoyed them allot and I will buy the Blu-ray.
The Americas one is on tonight – BBC2 at 9.00 pm.
Grr…. no amount of coaxing and pleading will get the dog to open my beer!
I may just have to put a churchkey on his collar. It worked for my keys the other day. Need to go somewhere? Call the dog, he has the keys.
@ sailor Carl. For how long do you want the plots to get back? Only one volcano or the three of them ? Do not be too eager. This may take some time….
A somewhat kludged method of estimating volume increase… sans Mogi model, would be to sum up the volume increase from the quake magnitudes over time. Of course a boundry for pertinant quakes would have to be established, as well as a way of weeding out the non Normal Mode faults. It should make for an interesting comparison to Mogi predictions. Too bad Carls floating around in what some doomsayer are calling a forming european huricane. (Its not… its a rotation of clouds that looks similar. It shows up as a mostly cold core low, more akin to a Noreaster than any thing else.)
Still have high winds here and as I can hear sea-gulls outside (I am some distance inland), someone must be getting rougher weather.
The low countries are also having autumnal weather: lot of rain and wind up to 16 m/s. And temperatures have trouble to hit 15°C, while last week we got +30°C. It seems that it is impossible to have normal nice summer weather (20-25° dry and sunny.)
“pilot” is gonna be a puke monster. Mark my words.
Actually, he held up the entire way. About half way he had become human. It is amazing what enough fresh air and a few waves in the face can do to you.
It was a pretty nice high wind sail, not to big waves, loads of wind, and a couple of people who actually know that the ass does not go backwards. And the ol’ Lady has 80 years on her since Allen Yachts built her on a Sparkman draving. During that time she has gone through a few storms and at least 1 hurricane (my brown pants experience). I figure it would take something momentous to sink her…
Edit… Regarding channel markers… The city I live in have all of 3 islands. So, instead we go to Finland or the High Coast for sailing due to the lack of an archipelago (my original hometown had some 1200 islands to sail around in). I am drifting… Problem is that the city I live in now have a whopping big archipelago, it is just half a meter under the surface, so lots and lots of channel markers, buoys, reef markers, light houses that are shut down… I hate them shutting down light houses.
Which reminds me of another story while on shore patrol. But I’m not sure that it would be appropriate right now.
I think a month would be fine, but 3 would be super.
And I think we want the entire area from Herdubreid down over Askja, Trölladyngja, Pálsfjöll (Manuel), Bardarbunga, Hámarinn, Grimsvötn and the Veidivötn, Laki area…
OK I get it. I need some time because I think I’ll do some time windowing with subplots like I did for El Hierro. I would like also to find some way not to have to sort quakes by hand from the master file.
I do not know if there has been so many quakes that it needs windowing?
Looking forward to the plot! 🙂
no problem, it’s only a parameter. I keep nearly the same code and add something along the line “Window size=Total number of quakes/n”, then you change n and you get the window size you want as a submultiple of the whole number of quakes… Et hop ! Voilà !
Good morning to everyone. Summer here was lovely last week. We saw the sun every day 🙂 I even have freckles appearing again 🙂
Today? Summer here is English. Wind and rain. Sigh! First early Potato crop in tubs is an epic Fail. Usually I use Old favourite of mine and get a fair early crop in my tubs. This year I tried a newly recommended variety “with very large crops so only plant 3 to a tub”….. One tub gave me 3 small potatoes, even though I dug to the bottom to search for the missing horde. 😦 It’s a good job we don’t depend on these to provide our only food 😦 )
I look forward to the usual varieties now planted in my veggie patch. beans and peas are in at last. All crops planted very late. I guess vegetable prices will rocket even more in supermarkets this year.
@ Karen and dfm. Thank you for your plots. They show a great picture of what I do believe is rifting. The pattern of the quakes this last week are classic.
Hi Diana! I noticed on the weather maps that northern England were getting the best of last week’s weather. We got the heat but it was overcast and muggy. We also got vast amounts of pollen and even people who don’t get hay fever were coughing and spluttering. Wind and rain and much colder today. 😦
Looked in on the Hekla Burfelli web cam to see people wandering around. That’s a first for me, gives me a sense of the area in front of the camera. Nice sunny day there.
How do I add a picture on this site, please?
Needs to be emailed in to general email address at the top right of the site.
Did you want to add the picture into the comment field or into the post?
If it is into a comment, just put in a link via tinypic. Then people can follow the link. And if it is interesting enough one of the Dragons (moderators) will put it in for you.
If you want to add something to a post you have to email it in and one of the administrators will make a judgement call.
Hi Carl and Rick
Thanks for the information. I doubt many of us would be that interested in two guys waving at the Burfelli camera, but at least I now know how to do it in the future!
Who knows, it might be someone from on here that is waving… 🙂
nah, did not go up that mountain … honest
(photo is from last allnight-trip)
*more in Carls mailbox*
BTW, there might be hang-glider or paraglider competition going on, launches are often made from a-top this mountain, but its a no-no landing on Islands in Thjórsá River – needing Helo lift out for one last week 🙂
There was this small quake. Is that what you call “the dead zone”?
23.06.2013 11:11:01 63.989 -18.802 11.2 km 0.9 99.0 12.6 km E of Landmannalaugar
Yes, this is the Veidivotn fissure, site of the largest lava eruptions on Earth. And the quake is magmatic, because it is deep. But per se, one quake alone does not mean anything.
It is just a sign that Veidivotn is gradually getting more restless, but it might take years, or decades, until we get an eruption there.
Thank you, Irpsit.
We are keeping an eye on those too…
Looking at Iceland now, I see the possible outcome of an rifting episode country wide, happening now. Even if it is a nano meter, I see it as the same time. Yes, it has taken days or weeks to get Iceland to look like this.
When a fissure opens up in Iceland, whenever that happens, I would be bet that you would see earthquakes all long the rift and causing hidden tearing.
One thing more to add. Could a fissure event not complete and just cause the local volcanoes to become more unstable, tweaking them to allow a increase in the VEI scale and multiple volcanoes to go off within a short time?
Rhetorical questioning above.
Answer … short version … “yes, right”.
I can do even shorter.
Thank you guys for the feedback.
Butterfly affect or A.K.A. Chaos theory. I submit that a slap in the face prolonged World War 1, Caused the fall of the Romanov dynasty and saved eastern Europe for twenty years.
Three people, Named; Alex, Paul and Max. (Real names are much longer). Alex and Paul had A big punch up at a train station over the lost battle and maybe a woman. Max was a military Observer at the Battle of Mukden. He was aware of this punch up, it was public knowledge at The time and made note of this.
Jump to the battle of Battle of Tannenberg. Again Paul and Alex was meant to be working Together, Max was of apart of the defense, he advised Hindenburg that these guys would not Aid one another. This created two armies miles apart instead of the planned one.
To quicken things along, The Russians lost bad. Alex committed suicide in a forest, Max Would later get promoted due to his actions, he would strangely retreat in 1918 from the Eastern front, setting the stage for the now famous, Polish independence war. Paul was later Placed in prison, then freed. He was arrested and executed on 1 April 1918 by possible Members of the GRU. He declined to lead the Red Army.
Without Alex and Paul, the Red army was able to swell its army ranks and the whites was down two senior generals, plus the rest.
Is this an example of chaos theory or me seen a pattern in random events?
And, as the crazy Texan on the motorcycle likes to say:
“There are 10 kinds of people, those who understand binary, and those who don’t”
Nice one Carl.
It was inevitable.
inevitable facts: Islands rift and GeoLoco return
Seems I’m quite predictable… Hmmm… Or just human and couldn’t get enough of you guys by silent reading alone… Whatever. Wish you all a lot of good things and an easy start into the next week.
Good to see you 🙂
You missed Dianas fashion show with a stunning Fascinator.
New post is up!
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