Tungurahua –Eruption 14 July 2013

Thank you to Chryphia and Renato Rio for finding lots of information on Tungurahua, including   the Instituto Geofísico Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN)’s excellent website.

Tungurahua woke nearby residents with an explosive eruption at 11:51 UTC (06:51 am local time) on Sunday 14 July 2013 (VA report [1]).  The eruption could be heard as far away as Guayaquil .  The initial eruption column reached an altitude of 5.1km.   A few hours later the column was observed to have reached 8.3 km.   The ash cloud drifted northwest, north and northeast of the volcano.   Pyroclastic flows were produced, including one down the ravine of Achupashal on the west side of the volcano.  Ash fell on towns close to the volcano.

Image 1: from IGEPN [2], digitally modified by the author.

Image 1: from IGEPN [2], digitally modified by the author.

Here is the seismogram showing the onset of the eruption:

Onset of eruption with tell tale "popcorn" style micro fracture earthquakes showing fracturing as magma moves upwards.

Onset of eruption with tell tale “popcorn” style micro fracture earthquakes showing fracturing as magma moves upwards. Screen capture by Graniya.

http://www.igepn.edu.ec/index.php/sismos/senalessismicas.html

About Tungurahua

Image 3: Photo by Martin Zeise, Berlin [4], published under Creative Commons Licence.

Image 3: Photo by Martin Zeise, Berlin [4], published under Creative Commons Licence.

Tungurahua (5,023m) is an andesitic-dactitic stratovolcano located in the Cordillera Real in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador.  The Cordillera Real lies in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Andean Volcanic Belt.

Image 4:  Andean Volcanic Belt.  Map from Google Maps, text added by the author, based on a map by Chiton Magnificus [5] & Major volcanoes in Ecuador from Wikipedia [6]

Image 4: Andean Volcanic Belt. Map from Google Maps, text added by the author, based on a map by Chiton Magnificus [5] & Major volcanoes in Ecuador from Wikipedia [6]

The subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate is responsible for volcanic activity in the region and also the Andean orogeny.

Image 5: Nazca Plate from USGS [7]

Image 5: Nazca Plate from USGS [7]

Tungurahua is one of Ecuador’s most active volcanoes, having produced several eruptions in the order of VEI-3 to VEI-4, and one eruption of VEI-5, according to GVP [8].  The VEI 5 in 1010 BC destroyed the edifice.   A smaller eruption in 1641 is believed to have destroyed the village of Cacha and its 5,000 inhabitants. Other significant recent eruptions occurred in 1773, 1886 and 1916-1918.

Tungurahua has a history of building followed by edifice collapse.  The current edifice (Tungurahua III) is located within the caldera created by the collapse 3,000 years ago of Tungurahua II.  The collapse also created a large debris avalanche deposit.

Eruptions are explosive generating ash, pumice, scoria, pyroclastic flows, lava flows (which have reached nearby populated areas), lava lakes and lahars.  There have also been some property damage and fatalities.

More information can be found on IGEPN’s website and GVP.

Update: As of editing this in the tremor is rising within the volcanic system.

tunguseismo

KarenZ,  16/07/2013

References:

  1. VA report: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/ARCH13/TUNG/2013G141243.html
  2. IGEPN webcams:  http://www.igepn.edu.ec/volcanes/camaras-de-volcanes.html
  3. IGEPN Helicorders:  http://www.igepn.edu.ec/index.php/sismos/senalessismicas.html

4. Image Photo by Martin Zeise, Berlin,  http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Equador_Tungurahua.JPG
5. Map by Chiton Magnificus http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/MAGMAARC1.jpg
6. Map of  volcanoes in Ecuador from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungurahua
7. Nazca Plate from USGS:  http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/slabs.html
8. GVP:  http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=352080
9. IGPEN:  http://www.igepn.edu.ec/
10. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andean_Volcanic_Belt

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133 thoughts on “Tungurahua –Eruption 14 July 2013

  1. Rest of the references:

    4. Image Photo by Martin Zeise, Berlin, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Equador_Tungurahua.JPG
    5. Map by Chiton Magnificus http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/MAGMAARC1.jpg
    6. Map of volcanoes in Ecuador from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungurahua
    7. Nazca Plate from USGS: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/slabs.html
    8. GVP: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=352080
    9. IGPEN: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/
    10. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andean_Volcanic_Belt

    & screen capture of the seismo taken a few minutes ago:

    • 😳 forgot to thank you Carl for adding the post. Thank you 😀

      It’s too hot here so off to find some ice-cream, or perhaps the dungeon 😉

  2. Thank you Karen for your article! I always liked and watched Tungu; I guess though, that many locals there don’t.

    Re sismos images on the IGEPN website: unfortunately, they are cut off about a fifth at the bottom in the html pages. To view the complete image you have to load the img only in a new tab or save it to your computer.

    Thus, this is the image of the onset of the sunday eruption.

    I do not know all too much about reading these but it seems to me that it couldn’t have been too big a surprise to the volcanologists as the changes in Tungus behaviour had been obvious hours before.

  3. Evenin’ All,
    Thanks Karenz for a nice post done at short notice 🙂
    It’s a pity the webcams are not too good, last update was at 1525 UTC…
    This could get interesting judging by the seismos int post…

  4. Wow. This one could be very nasty. Currently sitting at Boise Idaho at Ritzy jet center (l’m jealous of the firefighter and tanker crews flying in and out while I wait for my passenger.)

  5. Nice one Karen, I know everyone bangs on about open systems relieving pressure that theoretically should prevent a bigger eruption happening but the more I read about the evolution of past big eruptions the less confident I feel about this interpretation. Generally even years of intermittent activity is not going to relieve enough pressure if you have a magma system that is primed for eruption. On the contrary, the release of pressure might be just what you need to initiate a cascade of exsolving volatiles. Fickle beasts, volcanos.

    • in a book about explosive volcanism (forget the title), Sparks (I beleive ) mentions the sigmoidal function that approximates the behavior of the system as it swings through a gentle mode through a tipping point into a more violent mode. The controling aspects being related to pressure, vent size, and the ease that the gas comes out of solution.

      Something else to think about. “decompression melting”

      • sigmoidal, aye? Wonder what time frame he is envisaging.. I suspect he is talking of just one eruption sequence. There are a number of volcanoes showing signs of unrest at the moment.. Turrialba is one, for example. Are these signs the slow start of an upswing in the cycle or just random glitches that have nothing to do with the sigma curve?

        • Well, the timeframe he was looking at was relatively short… hours to weeks. The waveform just served as an example of what he was talking about.

          Think of an eruptive phase where a vent is cycling back and forth from “smoldering” to violently tossing hobbits into the sky.


          Not that I am pushing it… but it the title is listed on some of the indexing sites.

      • “The Physics of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions” Gilbert & Sparks
        EUR 108 ouch… I’ll have to put it on my Christmas list.

    • I don’t doubt open systems relieving pressure helps, but I think it’s important to keep in mind that there are many more variables than just that.

      I think the most simplistic way to gain a broad understanding of volcanic systems is to look at it like this: If you add 2 gallons of water per hour to a container that releases 1 gallon of water per hour, then eventually the system will rupture, even if it has some form of drainage. In other words, if net input is greater than net output, eventually something has to give. Open systems definitely slow down the re-occurance of large eruptions, but it doesn’t necessarily mean they can relieve enough pressure to prevent a larger eruption.

      The makeup of the magma usually determines whether the output of magma and pressure is equivalent to the input, or if it’s far less than the input. In effusive systems, the net release of the magma is almost exactly the same as the net input of magma since the magma flows so easily out of the system. As a result, there is never a chance for pressure to accumulate in the magma chamber as it simply flows out with ease.

      On the contrary, in a dacitic or rhyolitic volcano, you see far less frequent activity as the magma is too sticky and has a tough time relieving pressure that’s building through input of magma into the magma chamber. Since lava does not flow easily from Rhyolitic or dacitic volcanoes, they often won’t even look too much like traditional volcanoes as they’ll just be a hole in the ground (see Taupo Volcanic Zone), or a small blocky mountain like Pinatubo was.

      When you look at volcanoes with this thought process, it’s a bit easier to gain an understanding for their activity in a cyclical manner (albeit, far from a science).

      Take Mayon for example:

      Mayon is Andesitic to Basaltic, making the magma at least somewhat effusive in the grand scheme of things. Mayon was able to be built as tall and conical as it was due to it’s magmatic makeup. If it were more effusive, it wouldn’t be as steep as the magma wouldn’t clump together as easily. If Mayon had more silicic magma, the edifice would be steeper, and would be destroyed before it would reach it’s current height.

      Based off Mayon’s eruption history and magmatic makeup, it would be relatively safe to assume that it can relieve it’s pressure somewhat easily, which is why you see frequent small eruptions. However, as the edifice grows larger, the eruptions that release built up pressure in the magma chamber also grow. This is a result of the growing size of the volcanic edifice and the narrowing of the central vent. Eventually, volcanoes like Mayon reach a point where the built up edifice blocks enough pressure that they can create large-scale eruptions.

      On the other hand, take Taupo for example:

      Taupo is a huge Rhyolitic volcano. It very rarely has any eruptive activity that isn’t extremely explosive, which is mostly due to the magmatic makeup blocking pressure from being released. Once it’s magma chamber reaches a tipping point, it just waits for a basaltic injection from which agitates the rhyolitic mush, henceforth releasing a massive and very rapid eruption. This is part of why you don’t see much warning time before a large rhyolitic eruption (which was proven through Cordon Caulle’s eruption).

      • Nice reply cbus!! I am in the middle of reading Smith’s paper on the last Taupo eruption as I was intrigued by the various phases prior to the ignimbrite phase (Y7). Apart from greater involvement of water (due most likely to the presence of lake water) they bear a lot of similarity to Cordon Caulle’s last eruption and were not all that big in terms of volume (still major eruptions but nothing like what happened later in the sequence). And this is what frightens me a bit. If ignimbrite eruptions generally start like this, with a number of smaller ashy and pumicy phases, how on earth will we know that something catastrophic is in the wings?

        Imagine something like Cordon Caulle going on a bit longer and then the chamber roof suddenly collapsing initiating an ignimbrite-sheet forming eruption.

  6. Just noticed the popper to tremor transition image, snagged by Graniya. Great capture! Thank you!

    Judging from the time scales… those might actually be bona-fide tornillos. They are longer in period than what I call poppers, which may actually just be a shorter version of them. In my opinion, it’s the sound of rock cracking and making room for a moving finger of magma… or spreading the rock to push more through.

    • On this same page, below the news on Reventador, there is a very interestig article “Evaluation of the activity of the volcano Tungurahua” with fotos and a preliminary map of the pyroclastic flows that ocurred with Tungurahua’s eruption last Sunday.

  7. Interesting BBC article today

    Volcanic ‘scream’ precedes explosive eruptions
    A change in the frequency of earthquakes may foretell explosive volcanic eruptions, according to a new study.

    The seismic activity changes from steady drum beats to increasingly rapid successions of tremors.

    These blend into continuous noise which silences just before explosion.

    Snip
    More here http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23317368

  8. Additional snips which explains the use of the word ‘scream’ for those who cannot access BBC (think there are problems with people out of the UK)

    “Because there’s less time between each earthquake, there’s not enough time to build up enough pressure for a bigger one. After the frequency glides up to a ridiculously high frequency, it pauses and then it explodes.”

    The earthquake noise sounds like a scream before eruption when the seismometer data are speeded up sixty times to make them audible. The authors suggest a simple model of brittle fracture may explain their results, although the precise details of what is going on underneath volcanoes before they erupt remain unclear.

      • Amen to that.
        I made a modification to a chair and put in a 3 channel actuator to it. I then sneakily used Jons helicorder and transformed the data into a audio signal. It was quite interesting having Eyjafjallajökull massaging my behind.

    • I wrote about it a while ago.
      It is an old adage in physics that the frequency of waves go up as pressure increases withing a closed system.
      If you increase air pressure a simple tone A will go from its regular 440Hz to a higher frequency. It is audio 101 really.

  9. And another one at the sweet spot…

    Wednesday
    17.07.2013 13:29:33 63.565 -19.047 13.7 km 0.8 99.0 3.1 km ESE of Hábunga

    • I perhaps should explain these cryptic remarks of mine better…
      The magma decompression zone of Katla is right at that level. Deep quakes often have a lot of more meaning than the shallow ones.
      An 0.8M at that depth is more interesting than a 2M+ at shallow depth.

        • And I would like to chime in… once the pressure exceeds the tensile strength for the rock at that depth, a finger of magma can begin to move when the “hoop stress” becomes too great.

          Generally, the initial fracture will probably be at the top of the containing structure since that is where the lithostatic pressure is lowest. (determined by the confining pressure of all the rock that is above it)

          Following the way that I understand it…. when a fracture occurs, it opens up additional space to hold the magma. This lessens the overall pressure in the “chamber.” If that drops below the level needed to fracture the rock, the process stops until the pressure rises back above what the walls can withstand.

          The pressure increases due to additional melt, or from crystallization taking away available space for the melt, increasing pressure.

          These thoughts are derived from a reading of “Caldera formation by magma withdrawal from a reservoir beneath a volcanic edifice” V. Pinela, C. Jaupart (2004)

    • I initially figured this was just a somewhat standard deep subduction quake, but at a shallow depth, it’s suddenly a lot more interesting. I’m not sure how to read or analyze beachballs, but I’m assuming this is strike-slip?

        • Yup. The issue is that thats a lot of energy at such a shallow depth…. but not unheard of.

          It also may have formed a surface rupture on the seafloor. A submersible could probably photograph it if one were so inclined. The feature is likely about 8.32 km long.

          Note: For reverse faults, the formula data is not significant at the 95% level.

          (Wells-Coppersmith)

          • The location of this quake is in the middle of the Andes at 6km depth. Wouldn’t anything subduction related be down at 100km depth that far inland?

  10. Remember Nabro? That little African Volcano that confused Toulouse VAAC when it erupted? They reported it as another volcano and it caused a bit of confusion among those who follow volcanoes.

    Tonight, on the way home, I spotted a new Deli. “Nabros” I think I may have to check it out. The last time I spotted an out of the way non franchise Deli, I found the worlds best seafood and crab sub sandwich. Complete with “Dragon Sauce.” This was on some unknown two lane highway in Illinois… 30+ years ago. It had to have been good… I still remember it. Of course I also remember that @#$ train that we had to take to get to Chicago on liberty. One saturday morning a friend and I had to scramble down the tracks to the station because some idiot was taking pot shots at us as we were walking to the station. (It was a drive-by thing… something the Chicago area is famous for)

  11. Technically, this is OT, but it’s got Plutons in the overall structure, so that is sort of volcanic… though a lot of years old.

    Today,as I was bopping around headed to a call, my phone went off. I glanced at it, the message was from the USGS. The sun was glinting and I couldn’t get a clear look… something about a M5.2 quake. Since I have a few alert boxes set up on their system and wasn’t sure which one had triggered the E-Mail, I looked for a place to pull off so I could get a better look at what it was. One of my alert boxes is the NMZ… that would be phenomenally bad news.

    Sure enough, it was the NMZ box, but the quake was a Mag 3.2. I figured, “okay, the Guy AR swarm is back, I’ll look into it when I get home.” I just did a look at the data, and it was not the Guy AR swarm. This quake was right near the southern extent of one of the NMZ principal faults.

    Well… that’s different. And reasonably stronger than the normal quakes there. Not out of the question, but not run of the mill.

    Here is where it, the aftershock, and the preceding quakes were at in relation to the fault structures in the area. Note the plutons. Those are ancient magma emplacements that have occurred at sometime over the 750 million year history of the Reelfoot Rift structure. This thing initially started to Rift when Rodinia began breaking up. It failed to become a full on rift system and failed to fully develop. At the northern end of the structure, some texts indicate that the beginning of triple junction was part of how it was starting to develop before it stopped. TheWabash Valley Seismic Zone would have been one of the other arms of the junction, and a third arm would have extended towards the North-West. There are a few historic quakes that occur in that area. (towards present day St Louis.)

    The main quake (3.2) is denoted by the blue star. There was an aftershock at almost the same location.

    The light blue dotted line denotes the boundary of the Mississippi Embayment.

    As for relavence… think of those plutons as volcanoes that never made it. Now they are just old hard intrusive masses that reflect seismic energy, and may have contributed to making the 1811 quakes particularly nasty… as did the energy reflecting off of the mountain roots near Chistchurch NZ.

    • I like to think of the NMSZ and its related features as undead. Born 750 ma, failed, died out and should have stayed dead but along the way something brought it back to life.

    • Part of that was the few gigatones of Ice that flexed the crust… another is the opening of the Gulf o Mex.

      I also imagine that the mountain range that was pushed up here and then eroded may have played a role in keeping the rift from suturing back closed. The Ozarks used to be connected to the Appalachia.

    • I could not access that one…

      Completely OT… I am happily burping after a huge lunch on the Infamous Swedish Surströmming (fermented herring). It is one of my top five favourite dishes.

      • Did not work either…

        Thanks Cryphia for the image.
        Looks like a flank vent. I hope it is not at a ring fault.

        • The worrisome part is that Sakurajima doesn’t seem to have “gentle” in it’s repertoire.
          It’s either pop off like a steam safety valve or just sit there fat dumb and happy.

      • I have also been observing that “migration” from the “regular” live webcam for some time. It looks like, as the explosions keep coming, the vent and the edifice are moving along with an opening fissure.
        Carl, have we ever had a post dedicated to Sakurajima, can’t remember if we did.

        • Not that I remember.
          And it would be very nice to have one regardless since it seems to be shifting its behaviour. But I am not good at Sakurajima…
          So, if anyone wants to write a post I would love that!!! 🙂

            • On “Fasbók” there is good photo of Sakurajima, from Cargolux Boeing 747-8F Cargo plane. Quote : “Eldgos í Mt. Sakurajima Japan í morgun. Tekið úr LX-VCC – FL310 enroute Hong Kong – Anchorage.” Actually taken yesterday morning. Excellent example of how the plume behaves when wind at various levels is from different directions. I estimate plume did not go much over 12,000 to 15,000 feet *not expert* Taken from Flight Level 310 (approx 31,000 feet, interpolated to Standard Altimeter setting – 29,92 inces or 1,013 Hpa + 15Deg C) but actual altitude varies according to Temperature and Pressure in the region. LX-VCC was first 747-8F delivered to Cargolux.
              Uploaded to Tinypic ( lost the facEbook link … )

            • Ooh, nice! That’s why you should always tell cabin staff to get stuffed when they ask you to close the window blind on a daytime flight because other passengers are trying to watch a movie 🙂 (yeah, I know in this case it was a freighter)

          • I’ll be there tomorrow or the next day.

            I’ll try to get some footage.

            I may write a post when I get back… *looks again at the new eruption style*… IF I get back!

  12. This was an unexpected upgrade.
    Wednesday
    17.07.2013 16:30:09 63.903 -19.063 0.1 km 3.2 99.0 9.4 km ENE of Álftavatn

    It is not a volcanic earthquake, but at that depth it is not tectonic either. Probably some kind of hydrothermal vent collapsing or something. But it is remarkably big.

    • And 3 sweet spot quakes at Herdubreidarlindir.
      Thursday
      18.07.2013 09:09:07 65.162 -16.160 12.2 km 1.4 99.0 4.6 km SE of Herðubreiðarlindir
      Thursday
      18.07.2013 09:02:23 65.164 -16.159 12.5 km 1.7 99.0 4.6 km SE of Herðubreiðarlindir
      Thursday
      18.07.2013 09:02:15 65.160 -16.163 12.3 km 1.1 99.0 4.7 km SE of Herðubreiðarlindir

  13. Just to say that I often, when reading through the comments, I have the blog theme “The Old and the Wise” playing in the background. It is not my particular type of music, but it is mystic and heartwarming at the same time and inspires my phantasy. First of all it reminds me of the north of Ireland which had been home to me from 1997 to 2012. But I can also see the mountains of Kamchatka or an eagle soaring high over some Chilean volcano, I can think of the Merapi catastrophe in 2010 or roam the lava fields of Iceland where I had hiked in 1993… Thank you, Christian!

  14. I am sure I wrote a small comment mentioning my thanks to Karen for another excellent post. This was earlier this afternoon after my return home. However a combination of heat and return back to housework and cooking obviously has had a detrimental effect on my brain. Even more worrying is the fact that I have been hunting for the Friday Riddles and the resultant feeling of desolation because obviously they were not being posted this week.
    I just remembered it’s Thursday. :00ps:
    >>>>>>>>> Potters off to make a supersized iced coffee >>>>>>.

  15. GeoLurking brought up the New Madrid Seismic Zone yesterday. Just read this article about the USGS using low flying planes to measure the magnetic field over a portion of the NMSZ. Nice map showing the location of the NMSZ and the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone. And for tgmccoy there is a pic of the Cessna 180.

    • To be honest, I have always been fascinated by the NMZ. Any quake event that can literally force the Mississippi river to flow backwards for several hours demands attention.

      I’ve been across that river several times… it’s freekin huge.

      For those who are trying to wrap thier head around how a quake could do that… it was from an uplifted section of riverbed. The abrupt restriction of the flow path probably caused a bore to travel upstream…. similar in physics to a tidal bore where the incoming tide temporarily restricts the outflowing water, and a wave travels back upstream.

      Add to that liquefied sand spewing up out of the ground in huge fans, like a scoria cone, and that there are volcanogenic forces at work (though failed) … well, let’s just say that I’m hooked.

      Besides, it’s the closest semi-volcanic thing to where I live that I can identify with. Sure, there are some Jurassic era volcanoes off shore, and I did grow up on top of Jackson Volcano… but the NMZ is real and could be affected by tectonic forces from the MAR as it “pushes” North America to the West. (actually, the push is pretty feeble, “slab pull” is considered the dominant force in plate movement).

      And that points to an article that I have yet to write… (No Carl, I have not forgotten)

      • “it’s freekin huge” – Something we don’t think about is that in 1811-1812, the Mississippi was not as wide as it is now and in some places extremely shallow. Pre locks and dams system. My grandmother showed me where she was born in Keokuk, Iowa – right in the middle of where the Mississippi now flows.

        • Well, for comparison, at Keokuk, Iowa, flood stage is anything above 211,000 kcf/s. (currently at 145,000 kcf/s.)

          At Vicksburg MS, typical flow is about 890,000 kfc/s. ( 22,653. tonnes/s ) Peak was 2,340,000 kfc/s on 19 May 2011. (exceeded the 1927 Great Mississippi Flood and the 1937 flood.

          So , yeah, it is freeking huge, despite what the upstream locks and dams have to say about it.

          The river has a levee system that stretches through much of it’s length, and during flood stage this tends to increase scour since the river can’t spread out onto its flood plane.

          As for width, if you look at some of the Oxbow lakes, you’ll notice that yes, the rive has generally been that wide for many many years. The greatest change that the Mississippi has had, is that it has been kept on it’s current course down past New Orleans. The river is prevented from switching to the current Atchafalaya River channel, somethign that would do if left to it’s own devices. The Atchafalaya is one of the old channels that it has used, and as the friction load of the current channel becomes to great, the river changes course (meanders). That is how Vicksburg became high and dry after the 1876 flood. A few years later The Corps of Engineers diverted the Yazoo River into what was left of the old Mississippi channel in order to restore some access to the river and to keep Vicksburg open as a viable port.

          If you ever make it to Vicksburg, definitely go to the battle field park and check out the hills. During the seige of Vicksburg, the residents burrowed into the Loess hills in order to seek refuge from the war. This soil can be cut into an almost vertical face without collapsing. It’s fine silt that accumulated from the floodplain.

          Image → Wikimedia Commons “Loess deposit exposed in a bluff (Vicksburg, Mississippi).” by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster)


          Addendum: Due to a static display in one of the museums there, I knew that the daily fare for the residents was hard tack and beans. About a year ago, I found the standard recipe for US Army hardtack. (circa 1840) So I made some… just to see what it was all about. It has the consistency of a small stone. Not much flavor. A second one I made I tossed on the nightstand to see how long it would last. It still had the consistency of a small stone, but it’s been so long that I’m not going to eat it. I can’t even get the dog to take an interest in it.

  16. There was not 6,5 R quake in North-Iceland at 01:11 UTC. Likely more like 0,65 R 😉
    Automatic failed here!

  17. Well here I am gently melting . It’s an unheard of 31C outside and my greenhouse is almost at boiling point. My poor Tomatoes! I am doing my best to keep them from wilting. Shaded roof, spraying and watering morning and evening. Door open to the delight of squirrels who have found my store of sunflower seeds and nuts.
    I hardly dare complain as last winter was so miserable and long. However high temps and arthritis do not sit well together!
    I even found my husband drinking cold lager… absolutely unheard of and I thought I had hidden those bottles well (I make lager bread… I hate the taste of the drink)
    Here is my novel way to psychologically cool down….. Huni ll on a trip round the Iceland coast. Maybe we may see the odd whale 🙂
    http://www.livefromiceland.is/webcams/huni-ii/
    Does anyone (Icelander or irpsit ) know where about the Huni ll sails? The coastline is beautiful.

    • PS For those who are not good sailors I advise watching in short bursts. There appears to be a smooth easterly swell today which can be far more stomach churning than a rough sea!!!

      • Do not know exactly. Fishing boat “Húni II” is shomewhere between Westfjords and back at Akureyri (start and end-point). It sailed clockwise around Iceland as “Rockboat” (Rock-Band that is or Music-Band Boat). The ship is older fishing wessel that has been restored by volunteers as “perfectly working retired fishing ship” ( I do not know who owns it but think its sponsored by a Museum also).
        BTW one smallish EQ at edge of Hekla volcanic field this morning. Not a full blast event I admit, but another indication Hekla is not dead, only not erupting. I think this quake might also belong to SIFZ. So tetonic or not might be everybodys guess.
        19.07.2013 05:44:12 63,921 -19,776 7,9 km 0,7 99,0 9,5 km SV af Heklu
        http://en.vedur.is/earthquakes-and-volcanism/earthquakes/southerniceland/

  18. Totally OT: I went to London on Wednesday to see the Pompeii Exhibition at the British Museum. For those who cannot afford to see the real thing, but can get to London, I would thoroughly recommend this exhibition. It obviously concentrates on the archaeological remains recovered but there is also a short film to explain the eruption of Vesuvius, and the most poignant exhibits of all are the plaster casts of the body voids.
    Also OT: Britain is having an official heatwave. That is we are experiencing the sort of heat experienced in tropical Africa in winter. Unfortunately some of the inhabitants have no idea how to cope – the first thing they do is remove as much clothing as possible and “Go out in the midday sun” where they burn. While their bodies are trying to cope with the skin burns, they eat/drink frozen stuff in the form of icecream, iced drinks etc. thus forcing their bodies to raise their core temperatures. Quite a lot of them don’t understand air conditioning and have their windows open while it is on. Very entertaining. Me? I’m staying indoors, drinking tea and having a hot curry for lunch! (I’m on holiday this week!) 😀

    Rescued from the vaults by Kilgharrah

    • Ok, Thanks. I understand. Here its rain. 😉
      (but sun on other side, i.e. the Bunga side)
      Have happy week.
      *jelous*

    • Not to mention that the sugar uses up the bodies water as it is hydrolyzed and digested.

      … hello thirst.


      See? You can learn something from brewing science!

  19. Hello everyone, special hellos for melting Diana and Talla. This is just a short OT word of comfort: I have checked London temperatures during this “heat wave” and compared to Rio’s temps in the same period and all I have to say is that, except for the lowers, we are having about the same weather and it feels great! Come on! It could get worse than that! You bet it could. 🙂

      • As long as you people feel comfortable, I’m happy for you, yet I can’t say I feel the same.
        We also have a forecast for rainier and much colder air coming from the South. I can already see people here wrapped in heavy coats and sneezing and coughing as if heaven was falling apart. Well then… let us enjoy this short season of ours… Best, Rio.
        (I only hope our youth will take it easier with all the protesting on the streets. Pope is coming and it won’t be nice to see that….)

        • I’d like to be in Rio now! London also had riots in the year before they held the Olympics but the actual event went very well and was enjoyed by everyone. It’s been quite since then. I hope the same will happen in Rio.
          The problem with hot weather in Britain is because everything is designed for cold weather (which is what we normally get). All houses are insulted to keep in heat, as are shops, public places etc. There are no shady trees in car parks and houses that face south to capture most sun are more expensive. I’m enjoying it very much, I really like the heat and have been sleeping like a baby at night. I much prefer the heat to the cold!
          Now Talla landed herself in the spam box. (huh????)
          Rescued by Spica

          • Yes! I’m getting the full WordPress cold shoulder now! Telling me I’m posting too fast and to slow down – that was on my first post in about three days! 😀

            Set free by Kilgharrah

    • yeah! I remember Jamaica. It took me three months to get used to the heat. I developed the slower pace which is essential in heat,
      I also remember being really cold on top of Blue Mountain.. It was a freezing 50 F 😀 😀

  20. “…. and what he left behind, he hadn’t valued,

    half as much, as some things he never knew….”

    A juxtaposition of western lore and the reality of California…


    Personally, I think I may be going nuts. Had a dream last night that I was out driving, heading to my calls. Barreling down the interstate on a little kid sized quad cycle… having to use arm signals wince it had no blinkers. The only thing that kept going over in my head “you have got to be kidding me.”

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