Possible eruption at Palena & Riddles

Apparantly the only image of the Palena Volcano. From volcanodiscovery.com

Apparantly the only image of the Palena Volcano. From volcanodiscovery.com


And in record time the eruption at Palena was debunked. I am though leaving the text as it is. The real-time minutiae of the debunking is to be found in the comments.


The end of the year gave a lot of volcanic news, and the beginning is no less hectic. News is starting to come in that the Palena volcano in Chile has started to erupt. Some say that it is just a forest fire and that there has been no seismic signals heralding the eruption. The reason for the latter part is that the volcano is not monitored, and the photographic evidence seems to negate a forest fire. But, I guess time will tell.

Palena is a Holocene volcano that has erupted quite recently from a geological standpoint. No eruption has occurred in historical times, but that does not mean a lot really. For all we know this volcano can have erupted right before Europeans conquered the place and then continued to have magmatic intrusions up to this day, and we would not have had a clue about it. In short, I am definitely going with this most likely being an eruption, and I am not surprised that it happened. No, I am not psychic, I am just not surprised that a Chilean volcano in the lower Andes erupts unexpectedly.

Tremor continues at El Hierro, Nishinoshima is still growing and Sakurajima is happily puffing away. At Sinabung the dome is continuously growing and now and then a pyroclastic flow runs down the sides. It seems that the local population has headed the warnings and evacuated the five kilometer exclusion zone around the volcano.

Result of the Fall Riddle Contest 2013

After a long, arduous and brainwrecking competition Sissel in the end bested Evan Chugg, but something tells me that he is just biding his time for a grand comeback. It though remains to be seen who will be victorious in the spring 2014 campaign.

Score board fall 2013
21 Sissel
16 Evan Chugg
12 KarenZ
8 Alison
8 Diana Barnes
8 Harrie
7 Shérine France
6 Arjanemm
6 Henrik
6 Matt
5 Graniya
5 Talla
4 Cryphia
4 Kelda
4 Stephanie Alice Halford
3 GeoLurking
3 Michael Ross
3 Sa’Ke
2 Carl
2 Dorkviking
2 Lughduniense
2 Maggiemom
2 Spica´s mate, St. Ananas
1 Bobbi
1 Bruce Stout
1 Christian Thordin
1 Edward
1 Irpsit
1 Swinemoor


To freshen things up there is a slight change to the riddles and brainwrecks for the spring 2014 campaign. This week there are 3 volcanoes, 1 volcanic term and 1 famous volcanologist. Two points will be awarded for the correct answer before clues are added, and 1 point afterwards. Bonus points might be added by The Evil Riddler.

  1. Image + Image – The volcanologist: Ian S. E. Carmichael, a professor of earth and planetary science (Sissel, 2pt), Carmichaël West Indies Stratovolcano of Soufrière Guadeloupe (KarenZ, 1pt)
  2. Twice cancelled reality show that sang for the rising turtles – Koro Island, “Under one roof” was filmed there twice in 2002, and the locals sing for the turtles so that they will rise out of the ocean. (Pyter, 2pt)
  3. Oh brother, where art thou – Brothers Volcano, Kermadec Arc (Pyter, 2pt)
  4. Acoustically pistoning lava or gas – Chugging = Pistoning lava, or acoustic gas pulsing (DFM, 2pt)
  5. Wall of flames near radiant city –  Harrat Rahat, Medina means “Radiant city”, the lava flows stopped 4km from the then city wall (Matt, 2pt)

Lava of the Puszta

Europeans think Gulasch is a traditional Hungarian food but Gulasch ( Guylas, Goulash) is called Pörkölt in Hungary. So the following recipe is my personal version of a Vienese Veal Gulasch.

500g veal meat
500g onions
tomato paste
paprika ( spice)
some red wine
soup ( best homemade beef broth)
salt, pepper, majoram
whipped cream

Cut the onions into small cubes and roast them using low heat for at least 10 minutes. They should be glassy not brown. Add some tomato paste and the paprika. (There is sweet paprika or a really spicy version. Use the one you like best.) Roast only for a very short time span or the paprika will turn bitter. Deglaze with red wine (around 1/4 liter) and soup. (If you don’t want to use wine you can use 2 spoonfuls of vinegar for deglazing but the sourness is essential for the dish)
Cut the meat into cubes (2 -3 cm). Roast in a different pan and add them to the onion sauce. Add salt pepper and marjoram. Cook for at least 30 minutes adding liquid whenever necessary and keep stirring from time to time so that it won’t scorch.
Finalize using whipped cream and maybe some salt. ( In case the Gulasch is too thin, there are 2 traditional version to fix that. 1. Rahmgmachtl: Mix flour into sour cream and add some spoons of Gulasch before adding it to the cooking dish. 2. Mehlkugerl: Mix flour and butter and form a tiny ball, add that to the cooking dish.)

Serve …best with Nockerl !

Nockerl recipe:
Mix fine grinded flour with some milk and eggs. ( 5 eggs for 1kg of flour at least. The more eggs the harder the dough becomes) Add some spoonfulls of brown butter. (Butter which has been roasted till the proteins become brown). Spice up with salt, and nutmeg. Add flour so that you get a dough which is really hard to be stirred. Let it rest for half an hour.

Hold the pot with the dough above cooking salted water and cut Nockerl into the boiling hot water. The Nockerln are ready when they start to swim to the surface. Throw them into icy cold water immediately .

To serve the Nockerl, heat them in brown butter adding some salt and pepper (Best – white pepper)


371 thoughts on “Possible eruption at Palena & Riddles

  1. No. 2
    Canlaon, Stratovolcano in the Central Philippines, has three thermals (what are they, fumaroles?) named Carabao Killer, Chicken Killer and Hog Killer.
    Referring to the twice cancelled crime drama “The Killing”
    Found no reference to any turtles. 😦


    • … No. 2
      Eddystone Island (Synonym of Simbo), Solomon Islands.
      “The Courtship of Eddie’s Father” American TV show
      Howard “Eddie” Kaylan was the lead singer of The Turtles.

  2. 2-: “Koro” is a volcanic island of Fiji, which is part of the Archipelago Lomaiviti.
      The village of Nacamaki on the north side of the island, makes a traditional ceremony called turtle during which the villagers sing songs and turtles come to the surface.
    The short-lived 2002 U.S. reality show Under One Roof was filmed on Koro Island.

  3. You know that it is the backend of Christmas TV programing when the most interesting program is a 2 hour long documentary about a New Zeelander who drives around the country with his chains-saw to chop up whales that have floated ashore.
    I guess you need a license to chop them up. Imagine being a Licensed Whale Chopper.

    • Sounds great! After all the usual Christmas lowest-common-denominator TV (Harry Potter versus Dr Who in Strictly Bake-off at Downton Abbey), tonight the UK finally got its real festive treat – the start of a new series of ‘The Bridge’/’Bron’.

      Sheer heaven. Two hours of Danish/Swedish navel-contemplation, a lead character with Asperger’s, and a screen so grey that the red/green/blue dots on my TV have given up and died. Jättebra!!!

      • If you like that, try to download “Riket”, the americans made a copy that was called “The Kingdom”… But go with the original instead. Scandinavian grey-screen festival… It though jogs the brain pretty well.

        • Hahahahahahaha! One of my favourite you-tube videos. So glad I was nowhere near. Oh I laugh every time I see that video.

      • Yeuk! That is nasty.
        I grew up on the coast and remember well the excitement when a dead whale washed up in a storm. Naturally we all jumped on our bikes to go and have a look. A large crowd had gathered … upwind. It took a strong-stomached person, or a young-teen schoolboy :), to venture anywhere remotely downwind of that thing. Never found out what happened to it – presumably some poor sods from the local council were detailed to go with their chainsaws and ‘deal with it’

        • When I lived in Port Orford,Oregon (the place is much like Cornwall very mild
          weather-except when it’s nasty.) We lived about 1/4 mile from the beach.
          What happened was a dead male Grey Whale washed up at Bandon 20 mi N ,(Oregon’s wannabe Monterrey) well they had the local Tug/Salvage company
          yank the now freshly dead Whale off the beach. tow it to sea with a USCG
          escort, the cut it loose at about 12miles out to sea. OK. I was getting ready to go fly Tankers for the summer, and I was out trimming brush at my place,
          which was downwind of the prevailing Northwest wind.. NOTHING smells like a now very dead Whale and it washed up on Paradise Point Beach. It had been at sea oh,3-5 days, being late spring ocean is warmish it had a good ripening. Every one in town could smell it. I had to keep the doors and windows shut in the house and car. We kenneled our border collie who was
          notorious for rolling in (and eating) dead stuff.. Being a Baleen whale the
          most obvious visual effect was -some one harvested the jaw of the thing
          and was going to what I do not know, scrimshaw? The perp could’ve certainly been Identified-by the smell. Anyway one of the State Highway guys was at the previous whale destruction. He suggested NOT to do anything with explosives. One of the local Greens suggested leaving it alone to rot there.
          She was almost thrown into the whale. Of Course cutting and disposal was
          talked about but getting a permit was an issue. So it laid in that warm sun…
          about a week into this a mysterious sound came from the beach. A large diesel engine and the sound of something working. It was 2:00am. a local
          Road Builder took a very large Backhoe and buried it.Deep in the sand at low tide. took him about 4 hours. at low tide. when high tide came all evidence
          of the burial was gone. it never came to be a problem again..
          “What noise? I didn’t hear no noise .”
          “Big backhoe a lowboy? never saw it?”
          etc.etc.. 😉

          • Ah, so you have a Whale tresure (bone skeleton) buried on the beach. Do not know how much money but likely a small fortune now.

            • On 12 february 1989 a 17m long sperm whale washed up at the Belgian Coast on the beach of St-andré. 300 000 people came looking for him the next three days (Belgian coast is very accesible by train/tram). They named him “Valentine of St-André” (after time and place where he washed up) and buried him, three days after he beached, in the ground of an old abbey. He even has his own headstone.

              Recently they wanted to dig his skeleton out. They had to stop because, thanks to the clay he was buried in, he was extremely good conserved and even blood was still gushing out the carcass.

    • Yepp, or Demi Moore and Patrick Swayzie in “Ghost”… urrrgh..
      BTW I had one of then “TV Free Offers” over Christmas season. Included was some “svt1” etc. I can not understand how anyone can stand such programing without a revelution. Never sam any decent program the whole time! *Only kidding*

      • Poor people, you should have gotten paid to receive SVT1 during Christmas… 😉

        (There is actually SVT World if you are either nuts or understand Swedish. Totally without advertisement and sprouting very dry facts only news. It is boring, but in a way really good programming if you love Bergman and Tarkovskij movies)

  4. Talk about a good start to the new year. Appearently I just caught a bad case of the flu from my dad and I have not had a good night last night. Hardly got any sleep and been having bad coughing fits.

  5. We get some rare clear views at Sinabung today. It seems the eruption has ripped open a deep new “chute” into the southeast side of mountain. Here is a screenshot, cropped and enlarged:

  6. Ok, so this experimental

    This is the up and down variation of the various GPS on El Hierro.
    The values come from the public GPS charts on the IGN site.
    The GPS postions (shown on the map) come from the Proceedings of the Portuguese Spanish assembly of geodesy and geophysics 25-29/6/2012, “El método de procesado PPP en el Centro de Análisis del IGN
    Testing of PPP processing method at the IGN Analysis Center
    Manel Pascual, Miguel Ángel Cano, Marcelino Valdés y Pedro Gonzalo”, S01-53

    I have collected the Z values manually so there are some errors in the data, but we seem to get a clear trend anyway. When there was no value available (HI01) I have kept the last value. HI05 data is not included.
    The interpolation has been done using a griddata function in Octave/Matlab over a fixed grid. I have added 2 locations in Orchilla and La Restinga with values kept to 0 to enlarge the interpolation area, so that probably adds some errors too.

    The colorbar on the side gives the elevation change in millimeters.
    The title bar gives the time span and the date.

    To conclude I will add this is purely amateur work.

    Data from IGN and NOAA, made on Gnu Octave.

    • Interesting. It is in line with what I would have expected from IGN’s deformation graphs.

      How does your software work? (e.g. is it using triangulation?)

      • It is an linear interpolation of scattered data along a grid (lat/long).
        So to explain more precisely, I have collected manually (hence errors, but the trend is valid anyway) the elevation data for the GPS stations. I added 2 virtual stations (orchilla and La restinga) with DZ=O to enlarge the covered area. I got a X,Y Z matrix on which I did an interpolation (just like for the terrain elevation used on the other plots)

  7. I just went out on my roofgarden. I normally don’t go there much in winter, but it’s so nice and sunny so i went up to have a look. I harvested a nice buch of fresh lettuce a couple of carrots and an union from my vegetable patch. My japanese wineberry is sprouting it’s first leafs and a plant that is supossed to die of except the roots is in full flowering mode. I have an acacia that is an evergreen in warmer climates, but here in the netherlands it drops it’s leaves in winter, well in didn’t bother sofar this year. No it’s praying that the other plants are not gonna sprout their leaves like the japanese ash before the chances for frost are over.
    Looks like full on spring up there. 😯

      • Maybe you should look to North America.
        Here the trees are still in winter dress (luckily) but our Indian cress is still not giving up, also we had to remove our leeks because they were infested by a plague. And those insects are normally not “winterhard” (winterhard= they survive winter temperatures, I don’t know the english word, hardy?, wintered?).

        • I am looking at a walk through the Namib dessert. Ten days of walking, have to carry the water, zero-chance for rain (and if it rains a blossoming desert is beautiful), and just heavenly warmth, sun and dry air. :mrgreen:

        • You beat me to it, i think the US stole our winter. It’s hardy by the way, or winter hardiness.
          I mixed up the ash and the maple again. In dutch we have Es and Esdoorn. The fist one is Ash or Fraxinus the latter litterally Ashthorn is maple or Acer. I really fear the japanse maple. It’s hardy but it works on it’s buds all summer. The don’t just grow a leaf but a whole branch with several leafs. I’m afraid it might die if it sprouts and gets a severe frost over it.

        • “Hardy” works, but is actually sort of vague. “Winterhard,” though an impromptu construct, carries the intended meaning much better. English, being the bastardized language that it is, has accumulated new words through such construction. I think your word compound works just fine.

          • “Winterhard” is just the Dutch word for it. Because winter and hard both exist in English too and have practically the same meaning in English as in Dutch I thought that it would work in English too. Maybe in English you can use winterhardy. 😉

            Dutch is, after Frysian, the language which is most related to English. So very often you just can use Dutch words and it works too. Only for Dutch speakers some (Dutch) words and constructs make perfecly sense in English, while in reality it is (completely) wrong.

          • “Winterhardy” is equally accurate. It’s been too long, but I do remember seeing both terms used in my Mom’s farmers almanacs. She was really into plants and such, in part having been raised on a farm in Central Mississippi. Oddly enough, she is buried on a parcel of land that was gifted from my grandfather to the cemetery. Prior to that, it was cropland. Talk about irony.

            I have been considering the idea of talking my cousins into gifting another section of it just so there is a place for us since that cemetery is growing a bit crowded. The plot marker next to my brother and sister has been claimed by another family, but I don’t want to make a pissin’ contest out of it. I never had laid claim to that spot and as long as I’m in the area I can be happy with that. I guess it will be a matter of who becomes eligible for it first. Not a race that I want to have. I just don’t really want to be stuck in a National Cemetery since the scum of the earth would think nothing of protesting it… and I don’t want to be a prop for their anti service member mentality. If that’s they way it’s gonna go, I would prefer to OD on viagra, that way they can have a place to hang the flag.

        • Well we have USDA zones 1-9(10). Different plants are hardy in each zone. so plants that do great in zone 4 probably won’t do as well. in zone 8 etc This is based on sun, temparture, moisture, soil type etc. it is complicated.

  8. And completely OT:
    In the junior worldchampionships all is as it should be… Sweden vs Finland in the Final.
    And… it feels nice that we did Russia in on the way. Eat that Putin. :mrgreen:

    Edit: And commisserations for all of the Canadian persuasion, it is not your fault that you where in the way of the Finns to get to us. 🙂

    • Ya know Carl, I relayed your musing on the Finn’s “must defeat Sweden” mantra to a few friends of mine. They found it hilarious.

      Go get em Jarmo!

      One evening, when one of my gaming clanmates came online, and we found out that he was trying to cremate a frozen hamster, he exhibited the same dispassionate demeanor characterized by Jarmo. I didn’t find out until recently that he is of Finnish decent.

      • It is a two way street, we must beat them too…

        Us meeting in the end of a championship gives us a center of gravitas, only then do we know that the world is just and has meaning. :mrgreen:
        In a way the meeting is more important than the win (which is important)…

  9. The canary islands always intriged me. The first time i went to lanzarote. Just escaping the dreary dutch winter and catch up on some sun. I expected a boring tourist location but the landscape fascinated me. I cycled through vast fresh lava fields without any vegetation, but i loved it. I mostly cycled the Timanfaya area. Next year i went to la palma, being still illiterate about the geology of the island chain, i was amazed by the luscious vegetation. I was convinced the island had to be much older then lanzarote. Except from tenequia, and a few other lava streams it all looked much older then lanzarote. Next stops where Gran canaria, tenerife and fuerta ventura. The last one does look old and very eroded. Hardly any vegetation and only hills, no steep cliffs or sharp peaks. But the other two looked a bit in the middle. It seemed a conundrum to me.
    Then the quakes on el hierro started, i heard about it in the news and then i found Jon’s blog, just before volcanocafe started. After reading up on the subject my conclusions turned out to be completely wrong.
    In order of appearance you have, Fuerta ventura, Lanzartote, La gomera, Tenerife, Grand canaria, La palma and El hierro. From the idea of a crust moving over a hotspot you would expect the latest eruptions to happen on the youngest islands. That sort of is the case but the biggest recent eruption of the canaries took place on Lanzarote in the 1730’s a 50 km^2 lava field, completely changing the landscape.
    That doesn’t make sense to me. Why did an island so old have the most recent big eruption in the chain.
    Hawai behaves much better from a hotspot point of few. Does anyone have a clue why the canary islands keep erupting even when the hotspot already moved on. Maybe the head of the plume is very wide, maybe the crust can support long feeders, i don’t know.

    Just some Sunday thoughts 🙂

    • It most likely have to do with the canary islands hotspot being part of a much grander superplume. It has plume heads at both the Azores and at the Canary Islands. That is the probable reason for there being so many and small eruptive “heads” that erupt in turn.
      So, it behaves different than both the Hawai’ian and the Icelandic Hotspots and more like the African Superplume that stretches all the way through Africa…

      • Hi Carl, that sounds interresting. Do you have a read about the subject? It doesn’t say much, but i never heared about a connection between the azores and the canaries.

      • Arternoon Arjanemm and all,
        The schuperplume that Carl mentions probably comes into it (there is evidence for the Cape Verde hotspot being a part of it too!) but another factor is location. Hawaii is on oceanic crust int middle of t’ Pacific whereas t’ Canaries are on oceanic crust just 100- 450 kms away from the African continental crust. There’s an article here on Volcanocafe which discusses this and includes some good references, but in a nutshell, the uprising heat/ energy from the hotspot interacts with the passive continental margin and produces a convection effect which accounts for the seemingly out of sequence eruption of Timanfaya…
        Here’s the Article:
        And I can probably winkle out a paper on the Lanzarote eruption if you are interested 🙂
        Ps arjanemm, sounds like we wondered into The Schleepy Dalek Bar at about the same time, I had just come back from Lanazarote and was researching my next trip when I schtumbled across the El Hierro eruption on Earthquake Report, that swiftly led me to Jonfri’s blog, and I was hooked…

        • Cape verde as well. It gets more interresting as we go, thanks for all your contributions any way. A paper on the lanzarote eruption is very much appreciated. thank you schth 42

          • Thank you, i guess you’re name has a reference, probably to the question, “Answer to The Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything”. 42 seemed to be the only correct answer. .Still the best question with the poorest answer.

    • I’m not convinced Hierro is the youngest nor only 1.2m years old. The subaerial, yes. Because that’s where age measurements were made. But there’s a 35 km deep edifice under the island. Has that been generated in just 1.2m years?

    • I am interested as to why La Gomera has not has any Holocene eruptive history, even though it is closer to the Canaries hotspot than Lanzarote!

      • Location of the plume heads is the interesting thing, and that decides where there will be an eruption. Probably the plume head is gone now.

        • Though, he has a good point. La Gomera is ancient and deeply eroded. The Canaries are an enigma. We have theories. If you don’t like them we have others (to bastardize Groucho Marx).

          • Whether he’s right or not I cannot fault his parting comment:
            “Young scientists who should be encouraged to question dogma are kept in line via hiring, promotion, grant proposal and publication decisions. Zombie research programs defy burial. ”
            Ah!! the benefist of being an Emeritus Professor ! – say what you actually think.

            • I had a dear friend who was a Emeritus in language, he spend his last 33 years making life painful for a lot of people. He had a special horn in the side of a group of people in north america with a fake Viking stone. He made mincemeat out of them.
              Would love to know what you have been up to after being emerited :mrgreen:

              In regards of Andersons writings on the Plume Zombies I give him credit for pointing out a few ludicrous assertations of plumes. On the other hand the proof of them existing if fairly hard to talk away. I would just say that they do not always behave as some would have them to behave.
              One should remember that volcanology is a young science, it is still filled with gargantuan holes, contain mistakes, and lack any sort of theory of explanation for how hotspot volcanism actually functions (and to be brutal, all other forms of meta-theories). They will though sooner or later get there.
              Geology on the other hand is just a set of makebelieve categorisations of stones that lack connection to reallity. An ape with a good name memory could become a geologist and a professor of rocks. It is a variant of knappology (knappology = the art of cathegorising buttons in a pseudo-scientific way). It is amazing how many good geologists there are working in a field lacking scientific boyancy.
              What am I talking about? Well… take a hard critical look at how petrology works and you will be surprised of how much of it is just a case of “I want to name a rock, so I will by God make up a rock that differs from my neighbours rock”. It is all based on eightenth-century conjectures that by now should have been cleaned away. Either a rock is an individual chemical compound, or it is not.

            • or an armchair amateur like me at completely the other end of the scale!

              Sometimes I wonder if we not all overlooking something glaringly obvious at El Hierro. I like your rocks in the flow hypothesis but can’t see why the edifices would not just float along on the tectonic current like every other seamount out there (and there are literally hundreds). But I do agree that we might not be seeing the arrival of fresh magma. No, somehow I think these swarms have something to do with the point of magma genesis. We naturally think in terms of magma flow as though these swarms are all caused by magma movement and are flummoxed as to why there is so little HT and such a piddly little eruption. But maybe we are not looking at magma movement so much as a gigantic act of magma formation as arriving heat reaches a shallow enough depth for the local rocks to start melting. This would match the 2-year timeframe for crystallization posed by Stroncik et al. In this sense the swarms are not the record of sill formation from injection as much as they are the creation of sills in situ as arriving heat tips mantle rock and lower crust into a phase change. The seismic activity is then just a readjustment to the stress regime.

            • If I hadn’t opted for self emeritation I’d still be struggling for funding for my ideas on the cellular injury mechanism in heart attacks. Its an odd field – only able to embrace one idea globally per decade. That’s largely because there are far too many clinicians playing at science one day a week, but controlling the funding bodies. So non-conformers like me get ignored and unfunded. I approached the issue making measurements on single heart cells, found a distinct sequence of events culminating in myosin activation and severe depletion of ATP. That activation needs a lot of ADP, and generates even more, and ADP is possibly the agent that spreads the injury cell to cell. The work is still close to my heart ( pun intended, apologies) so I watch the literature and email anyone who looks to be working in the area who might take up the challenge.
              Well, you did ask!

            • Yepp I did, and the scary part is that I understood a bit about it 😉

              Just a question, why did you not go private? Sounds like it could be possible to make a viable treatment out of it and that should interest a medical company or two. And scientific research is peanuts for them really.

            • @Bruce
              I came across this review article, from Don Anderson again:
              I think its broadly relevant to my heretical post. But dont know if the Canary crust is an ‘extensional environment’ and subject to tensile forces. But I feel considreably less out on a limb having read the article.
              I think this paper is important critique of established wisdom and needs to be assessed in the contect of Hierro – particularly by those with considerably more epxertise than me! Canaries get a mention on p 23-24

              Maybe the sheer depth of Gorabtikov’s stacks redirects mantle flow around it to generate tensile forces. We dont know how far that 30km structure extends beyond the bounds of the aerial volcano- the survey method doesnt permit.
              If there is a similarly deep structure extending south of Restinga those sea mounts might be expected.

              And a key question is how could that 30km deep structure be generated? I suppose the tech term is underplating – but that suggest laminar plates not tall stacks. Perhaps Anderson’s tensile forces are/were at play?


            • @ Carl. I tried private,even with a big pharma who had funded a postgrad on the project. But for them the ideas were ‘too early’ and ‘not close enough to market’, and they were cutting research effort. VC feedback likewisese. I had a couple of model myosin-mimetic peptides but that route would mean gene therapy – too big a step for them. Mysosin is hugely abundant so a poor target. But stopping the ADP moving cell-to-cell to spread the injury could be a feasible target. But has not been done before. Eventually I had to give up to preserve my own cardiac health!

            • Sounds like a feasible way though…
              I bet you will get to say “I told you guys so” sooner or later.
              And while waiting for that you get to work on your beautiful car. And if the regulators go bananas you can always come here and drive it… Thousands of kilometers of roads and not a policeman around anywhere (and if they see you driving it they will just stop you to talk to you about how beautiful it is).

            • @Carl. Yes, if I’m right, eventually someone will show the myosin/ADP story is central to protecting the heart from ischaemia – our publications will prove it!
              There’s good news, not yet confirmed, that the EU tests will be a Directive and UK test standards will remain as they are. So the TR6 project in ‘on’. Its far from beautiful, actually quite rough – but it is different, and allows me to design from first principles, see if I can do it. Would have like to have been an engineer – but the maths was lacking.

            • @ Peter,
              if we take a very simplified model of mantle flow as the driver of plate tectonics (i.e. the mantle is made up of huge convective cells on which the ocean and continental plates merely float and crash into each other, with oceanic plate getting subducted at the edges and continental plate scrunching up and spat out again in volcanic arcs) then the mantle and the crust around the Canaries should be moving more or less in unison, with the Moho acting as kind of lubricating layer for any disparities between the two. The thorn in this nice pattern is quite literally Gorabitkov’s stacks. They go too deep to be explained as a crustal anomaly, yet burst up through the Moho and quite literally anchor El Hierro in place. They also look suspiciously like what you would expect from the head of a mantle plume.

              Extensional volcanism doesn’t look to me to be the regime in the Canaries, which I would associate more with a nascent mid-ocean ridge or rifting like in the Afar triangle rather than whopping great 8000m tall structures (e.g. Teide including the submarine part), but who knows? Maybe there is an element of that at play?

              I still think the Canaries are the surface expression of some kind of tattered superplume. Now, given that superplumes are in themselves a product of convection, why the discord between the plume and the mantle underlying the Canaries region? Why isn’t a plume of this magnitude driving plate drift in its own right? Is it too small? Is it just the avantgarde of a larger upwelling that is on the way? Whatever, the main point to understand is that this plume is slowly upward-moving ductile mantle material that is merely hotter than the surrounding mantle. Magma genesis occurs when the pressure drops enough to allow melt to form and this seems to be between 26 and 16 km depth. Note that Stoncik et al talked about magma mixing of small ephemeral pockets of lava. Ephemeral being the key word. That’s why I think we are seeing what we are seeing and have a strange absence of all the other signs of a volcano that is reawakening (fumaroles etc.)

            • Hmm… maybe the Millennials aren’t as f’ked in the head as I have believed them to be.

              I asked the grandkid to swing by here and give me a hand with doing the coil-pack (mainly because I wanted to talk to him about the home invasion that he was victim to and to advise him about what he needed to get his license replaced). He dove right in and did the change out pretty adeptly, and tried to refuse me paying him for his trouble. Dunno if it was politeness or what, but it took me by surprise. The main reason that I wanted his help was so that I wouldn’t get frustrated and wander off from the task. I tend to do that. A couple of years ago that happened while I was replacing my clutch… that and it was about 45°F under the truck… on concrete, with a wind blowing… and dark. I gave up on it, shoved the tranny back in place, bolted it in and had it hauled to my mechanic. I think the borderline hypothermia had a lot to do with me giving up. Coil-packs for this model are cake, but I just didn’t feel like doing it and I hadn’t seen him in a while. (nor had his dog, which I have staying here.)

              Speaking of which. That dog is beginning to grow on me. Last night he went freaking nuts on the front door. I looked outside and noticed that someone had broken down and was parked in front of the house. Another vehicle had pulled up and was helping the guy. I let them be and gave the dog a reward for doing what dogs have done for mankind since day one. Keeping a watch on the surroundings. Had someone intruded into the house, the dog would have kept them entertained while I retrieved the shotgun… provided they could escape his jaws.

              With regards to the burglary they were caught. Dunno their names, but you can probably find them on this site. Supposedly, they live around here but I have yet to see a familiar nearby street. ECSD made the arrest, so the PPD ones are definitely not them.

              Humor time… Several years ago, when I was attached to Navy Police (technically Shore Patrol) my job was to go down to this particular jail and write bail tickets for sailors who where there under minor offenses and transport them back to their local command. In the event they were no-shows at court, we would have to go pick them up from their command and deliver them back to the Jail.
              (only had to do that once, and he about shit bricks when he bolted out of the back of the van only to discover that he was inside a vehicle sallyport and wasn’t going anywhere.) anyway… inside the Jail, is the booking sergeant where we had to fill out the paperwork. There was a corridor that ran down the front of the temporary cells that held the new arrivals until they could be processed. (Photos and fingerprints etc..) One other thing they do there, is to collect the belongings of the arrivals and place the possessions into storage packages. I was looking across the central area towards the camera room when a deputy came walking out from back there and was beginning to cross the corridor to the sergeants desk. One of the female detainees still had a wig, and had flung it down the corridor. As it slid past the deputy, he nearly jumped to the ceiling as this large furry looking thing slid past him on the floor… like a large rat.

  10. Hi

    Here is the update for The El Hierro earthquakes for today since December the 22nd

    A small cluster is “quietly” forming at sea off Las Playas.

    The first part of the video shows an event by event animation starting on the 22nd.

    The left side of the colorbar gives the date.

    The title gives the event count versus total, date, hour and magnitude.

    Dot size is proportional to magnitude. The scale is given on one side.

    Terrain elevation is shown (see right side of the colorbar)

    The following sequences are a 360 rotation showing all the events and some vertical rotations.

    The last sequence is a zoom centered on the last event.

    Data is from IGN and NOAA, made on Gnu Octave.

  11. Poop… 1-2 after the second quarter, and Stoneyard is allready out BBQing in a snowpile celebrating the victory… May his beer-can get freeze stuck against his lips! 😉

    Well, one more quarter to go…

    • 2-2, 9 minutes left…
      A friend of just said that he should have baught false-nails since he has bit his real ones off allready.

      Edit: And the Finnish commentator made his first comment in this game… “Crap”

  12. May everyone of the Finnish persuasion get watery Vodka and a medium temperature Sauna… *grumble*

    Edit: Well, your sorry asses will be ours in the Olympic Games… *more grumble*

      • Nope, I support all cricket teams at the same time. Cricket is a brilliant sport that I hope nobody ever will explain the rules for me. I love watching something as un-understandable as cricket.
        For instance, once I saw a guy taking the position to bat, then he rose up without batting and walked away. To my surprise everyone jumped up and cheered and somehow they got points. After that everyone went for tea for half an hour. Brilliant!
        Me and a couple of friends usually watch it while having beers, the sport is to make up our own makebelief-rules.
        Now I will probably get shot by all the cricket fans… And no, you may not explain the rules to me, that would destroy the fun :mrgreen:

          • And they have apparantly never played a real game of cricket. So far they have only had trial games.
            We have an entire Saga about what is necessary for a real game to take place. :mrgreen:

  13. The U. S. has indeed stolen Europe’s winter. I am in southern Illinois with up to 14 inches (35.56 cm) of snow coming down with windy conditions and wind chill factors of up to -35 F (-37.22 C) tonight. In Green Bay, Wisconsin, there is a football game (American football) being played in an outdoor stadium with even colder temperatures and wind chills. There is no way I would be sitting in that stadium! I am not even going to clean off my car to go to work tomorrow. Blowing, drifting snow and below zero temperatures with ridiculous wind chills – no way! I think I want to go to the desert with Carl.

    • You are welcome to join me 🙂
      Bring lots of spare socks, change twice daily mandatory on a desert walk…

  14. My commiserations for your loss Carl. I am sure it must be hard to deal with. The Australians deal it out to us at regular intervals.

    Meanwhile, it’s time we turned Mike Ross onto the NZ Herald while he is within striking distance:

    “The eruption of a “supervolcano” hundreds of times more powerful than conventional volcanoes – with the potential to wipe out civilisation as we know it – is more likely than previously thought, a study has found.”


  15. There is local disagreement between a tectonicist ( F Hernan ) and Carracedo hotspot group on the origin of Canaries, summarised here:

    Hernan’s review they query is here – in abstract only:

    I wonder if a source of lithosphere tension around Hierro might come from lithosphere depression by Atlas Mts? Also, the lithosphere thickens towards Atlas and thins to oceanic crust without sedimentaries west of Hierro. So is Hierro on a bend in the crust?

    • I have a simpler solutions, but it is just a loose idea.
      Iceland has a slab that has gotten stuck under it. And it would not be impossible that there are a few pieces of residue from the Africa/South America break up under El Hierro. Just tossing it out there.

        • Another explanation would be that El Hierro for some reason is prone to containing large intrusions. The mantle over a hotspot is more pliable than normal mantlematerial so if large amounts of large non-eruptive intrusions had occured it is feasible that the bottom under the magmatic intrusion had over time sunk downwards.
          I can come up with hoards of versions how it could have occured. Problem is that most likely quite a few of them would be correct at the same time, and as such hard to falsify or prove in any way. I think looking for ONE explanation would be fairly futile.

          • Well, when the MAR was forming, some parts of Africa wound up on the US side. I imagine that shards of crust happened all up and down the forming margin. (Florida is said to have originally been part of Africa.)

            • There are shards of that little event frozen in the oceanic crust, or under the oceanic crust, all along the sides of the continents, and some of those shards have ended up in wild places. Like Florida 🙂

    • Seems like they have gotten someone that actually is not entirely bad. The language is still hyperbolic, but the facts was pretty straightforward.

        • As far as I know there has not been any dramatic increase in tremor. And as Boris pointed out, that would be seen before any real show. No, this is just part of the current show, and what they are talking about are PFs from the crumbling dome, and explosions.
          If they expected a main show it would not have been an extension from 5 to 6.5 kilometers of the exclusion zone. It would have been much more. The Indonesians know what they are doing.

    • Even though it looks bad it is actually not a big crack in the mountain. It is a minor crack at the top that lets the pyroclastic flows go down a ravine. In an odd way it is better for the locals as long as nothing different happens. And currently there is no large increase in activity, just more frequent pyroclastic flows as the brittle lava dome collapses.

  16. Just a bit of weather for me in NE Oregon- forecast is for near normal with rain below 1000M Normal is +3C for high and -4C for the low. But we may be getting more of a westerly flow and more rain than snow. as we get closer to the middle of January or chances for real cold diminish somewhat-especially
    in a year were the Rockies east get it…High wind watch out but it is starting as a Chinook so we may lose our snow for a while…

    • Wife came in in a bit of a spaz and told me it’s supposed to be 17°F here on Monday next week.

      That’s actually not that big of a deal. The last time it happened was about 20 years ago. I was on a call in the north part of the county and when I went to get a new bottle, my bunker gear had the consistency of plate armor from the frozen fabric. That was also the fire that a few of us were talked sternly to by the department chief for leaving a small corner of the building burning so that we could stay warm.

    • From the article.. in bold text.

      “Supervolcanoes like Yellowstone can explode without an earthquake or other external trigger, experts have found.”

      dubious at best. The article further states “We think Yellowstone currently has 10-30% partial melt, and for the overpressure to be high enough to erupt would take about 50%.”

      And: “The ground would probably rise hundreds of metres – a lot more than it does now.”

      So… since all of their work and prognostication is based on modeling, and some lab tests of artificial magma in a test device in a lab…. let’s play with the idea of modeling a bit. Remember the golden rule. Garbage in = Garbage out.

      ASSUMING that the last eruption is the starting point for melt accumulation (ignoring all the resurgent activity that filled in the caldera) That puts the start of our exercise at 600,000 ybp. That gives us 20,000 years for a 1% increase in melt volume. Since they also state that things probably go off or get unstable at 50% melt, that leaves 20% still needed in order to get into the danger zone, or another 400,000 years (using their data). Unless the zombie apocalypse comes along… I probably won’t be around to care. (Thats also assuming that we are as resilient as Homo neanderthalensis)

      Now.. realize that things can always change. Fresh magma could enter the system and accelerate the process. Just as likely, that infusion could be further up the hotspot track and pool underneath the mountains nearby, or not come at all.

      Linked off of that same page, is this:

      Toba super-volcano catastrophe idea ‘dismissed’

      Related VC article: End of the world is currently postponed

      Now, I realize that I just urinated on a lot of doom chatter… but being alarmed should be centered around stuff that can actually pose a real and immediate threat… such as whatever it was that was lurking in my yard. But, like most of the “superdupervolcanoes” that something is just another unknown, much like what we know about the volcanoes. And since no one has been around to see one, how can they make the statement that they “explode without an earthquake.” What? They have a time machine stuffed to the gunnels with seismic gear? I’d be more interested in this time machine than anything else.

      @Carl. I really hope you are talking about Tephra with your Shades of Grey moniker…

      If not, this is for you: David Allan Coe NSFW, NSFK, Adults only. Let me see Rednex cover that song. 😀

      And for those that are adverse to a bawdy adult themed song, one that is a bit more tame… but unrelated to my grey comment.

      • Wow! That was a brisk analysis. Rather puts in context the last paragraph in The Independent’s article, talking about a decade or more – as if that is a long time.

        • Yeah… I get that a lot. I’m known for having a pretty heavy hammer, though usually I do it with plots.

          Thank you for the article, it’s still a good read. 🙂

          As for the speed… I’m sitting here at 2 am local trying to get my mind off of what may or may not have been in the back yard. I need to go to bed, but I’m not ready to drop my guard. A mischievous part of me wants to put pails of water in random locations out there… and arrange a few trip lines. But I won’t. If it was a person, they probably crapped themselves when I put the dogs out to investigate. That large one is a deep dark stag red and can’t be seen in the dark. And it has a pretty nasty set of teeth. If they shoot it, that gives me permission to return fire… and I use a 12 gauge pump with buckshot. I’m not gonna give them the opportunity to sue me for defending myself. (plus, the 12 gauge is what I am most familiar with. That was my assignment on the shipboard security team. It’s not a forgiving firearm if you are on the wrong end of it.)

          Note: I would use slug, but I don’t want to run the risk of shooting into a neighbors house. Buckshot doesn’t penetrate walls as easily.

            • Doubtful. That’s a Pacific NW sort of Cryptid. In Florida, we have the Skunk Ape, but that is supposed to be down in the dangling part of Florida out in the swamps. It’s too populated around here for anything of the sort to get near the house.
              However, there was an armed robbery up the road about a mile away last night. He was also caught.

              Ya see, our criminals are not what one would consider to be particularly bright. Yeah, they pull off their crimes, but evasion is not one of their strong points.

        • Using the other value from that article, the 10% current melt, would put the 50% mark at another 5,400,000 years. (And would also be more in line with the timing of the other large caldera events for that hotspot down through the Snake River plain.)

      • More like the feeling of being beaten by the Finns… Sigh… And a comment on how the weather looks like outside. It is 50 shades of grey really.
        Rednex, not one of our better export products.

        • Hmm, Jon Corzine, seemed to enjoy them when he was trying to scam people into voting for him. Asshole showed up at the Navy Day Ball in Jersey. In my opinion, ruined a perfectly good get together. Friken politicians. They are as crooked as the day is long… and then some.

          • WooT???
            You are actually saying that someone fell asleep and let Rednex out of Sweden unmonitored? Sigh… My profoundest excuses. It seems that every other year someone combines techno and some old music style hereabouts, and then due to lack of swedish music taste we get a local monster hit. I had profound wishes that Rednex would stay local, but I was wrong… apparantly.

            • No.. it was recorded. They started out with Cotton Eyed Joe and played a couple of songs. I found it odd since I had never heard Cotton Eyed Joe trashed like that. A couple of attendees were hopping around the dance floor like spastic chickens. Corzine was definitely into it and doing his best to appear so, though I don’t think he he actually tried the grand mall seizure dance.

            • Well, they do seem a bit canned. I used to find the fiddle player quite ludicrous. Then, the other day, I ran across a video of a 4 girl act that covered the song live. The fiddle player was actually playing the thing. She didn’t prance around as much as the Rednex idiot, but it added a bit of clarity as to how much twitching and flailing about that a fiddle player can get away with and still hit the notes.

              Question for you since they are a product of your country. Reference the official video for Cotton Eyed Joe, is it normal for singers in Sweden to sing into light bulbs? The scene is set up where the group is hopping around in what appears to be some sort of boxing ring, singing into a drop light hanging in the middle of it like an announcers microphone. It looks to be about a 60 watt bulb.

            • It is not that common really… 🙂
              But, we do have video-producers renowned for their poetic license. Ontop of that they have a rather odd sense of humor. Swedish bands normaly tend to have a designer and a PR-guy attached to them. Blame ABBA for that… Difference being that ABBA actually knew what the hell they where doing.

  17. @#$… little dog just scared the shit out of me.

    I’m in the kitchen playing with the big dog, getting him to “stand” and the little dog spotted something out of the back door and when freaking nuts. I saw a shadow on the screen from the backyard floodlight and became instantly freaked. So, I turned all the dogs out at once. Big dog, in a heightened state of alert from the barking of the small dog, made three circuits of the yard trying to find whatever it was. No joy. I called him in and leashed him while the little dogs kept barking at the gate. I took the big dog out the front door on leash and checked the exterior of the house. Nada. Brought everyone inside and gave them treats. Alertness is what I reward. Now I have the shotgun in my computer room since I realized that the only defenses I had was a metal tube and a dog.

    I’m really hoping that the wind (which is ripping) was what set the dog off. I also have a camera monitoring the backdoor now.

    • I have my camera connected via USB to my network recording and to the TV-set. That way I can see who it is, or if it is dark I can see the heat signature. I don’t have a set in the bedroom since I prefer to use my bedroom to sleep in, but if you have one that is what I would hook it to.
      I have also upgraded the door to a security door with deadbolts reaching backwards and changed the door-fitting. And since the door goes outwards it would take that the perp took some rather unvieldy equipment up two sets of double stairs. As a point of reference, it normally takes the firedepartment more than five minutes to open a door like that and they are pretty big and strong dudes that takes turns with huge “can-openers”. A perp is normally alone and weakened by years of drug use… And do not want to make noise for 5 minutes anyway.
      In the event it is a pro he (most of them are hes) I am dead anyway somewhere on the street or some such. I have no belief that I would survive something like that. I know what I could do, and I would not survive myself. Not even a presidential security detail would stop a real pro, they are just there to stop “Joe Average” from taking a pot shot and trust me, the security guys know it and grow ulcers from knowing it.

      And in regards of it being a child that was the perp… I would just help him carry the stuff. I still have nightmares about the child-soldiers in Congo. Trust me, it is not worth it. Much better to plan the house so it is hard to break into. It is amazing what just putting in UV-resistant polycarbonate instead of the glass can do, just remember to glue it to the frame (will also lower noise from outside). And, putting in better dors that goes outwards (will also make policemen regret kicking the door). After all, few perps want to stand around in the night banging away to get in, they just want to make one noise and then be in.

  18. Addendum: Ref My Paranoia. I had a house stripped of all valuable content and ransacked before I retired from the Navy. The Jackson MS police department was totally unhelpful, and lived up to my expectations for the corrupt pieces of shit that I believed them to be. That’s why I moved to Pensacola rather than my home town of Jackson.

    It’s pretty stressful, having your home violated like that. Two weeks after moving in here, my daughter’s car was broken into and had the stereo stolen. I am a bit adverse to the idea of someone ripping me off.

    Pensacola has quite a few home invasions for it’s size. Some are successful, some are not. For the sake of God, I hope that it doesn’t happen, but if it does, I would prefer that it not be some kids. I don’t know if I could live with myself if I dropped a kid. A hardened criminal? Yeah, no prob. Emotionally I could handle that. But my odds go down if the intruder has experience.

    • Post sitting up late wrap-up. Spent most of the evening laying there listening to the wind. Big dog had taken up a spot on the floor near the bed. I nearly fell asleep several times, but would be awoken by something stupid. This ranged from my ear getting hot to the dog issuing a deep throated growl. That one caught my attention quite fast. He darted into the living room and looked around, then found a spot to lay down and doze off. I finally was able to do the same sometime after 4:30. At 8:00, I was back awake talking about a trouble ticket on a toasted power supply down in Ft Walton Beach. Sat in the recliner in the den and dozed off for 45 minutes of finishing off sleep as my coffee worked it’s way into my system. Let the monster dog out to do his thing, little hairy bastard had to come along also (one of the rat dogs). Had to stand and monitor them since rat dog likes to make an escape attempt if you don’t keep an eye on him. Wind is still ripping, though not as hard as last night. Nothing in the back looks like anybody busted their arse moving around in it. The flood lights never came on last night. I have them on motion sensors. One more cup of coffee and I’m out the door to go render technical assistance where needed.

  19. @ those who were debating the age of El Hierro, it is ~156million years old, according to Carracedo & Day (“Canary Islands”, Juan Carlos Carracedo & Simon Day, Classical Geology in Europe 4, Terra, 2011 reprint)). The oldest surface lava is 1.12m years old; the youngest (pre-Bob) was 500BC.

    • Could get interesting. It’s hughe, especially the main big spots to the east, But it’s gonna happen in the south west sector of it. Two magnetic delta spots are forming there really quickly. This could produce atleast 2 nice flares. I don.t see anything much over a X1 yet. But ofcourse also in this subject i’m just an layman with a stong interest.
      I always check this link. The site is always refreshed after my morning coffee. http://www.solen.info/solar/
      By Jan Alvestad.
      The guy is excellent. I think he updates his page about 360 times a year. When he thinks, he might not be able to update, he`ll let you know several days ahead but he normally pulls it of anyway.

  20. And for those who are wondering. There will be a new post up in a few hours, currently writing away on one.

  21. Good evening all! I am back from work now where the radio had been blaring all day long. Hourly news are only five minutes long at that station and contain only the “most important” news (whatever they deem important). They said that another 10,000 people around Sinabung have been evacuated and that volcanologists are expecting a major eruption in the coming days or weeks. What made it important to me was that it was given in the radio news in Germany at all, and it sounds rather as if official statements or press conferences have been made/held.

    What about the lava dome, is it still there and growing?

  22. My daughter just asked me if there is a chance that G. Sinabung could do a Tobatubo, as its location is so near to the Toba caldera. Who says that it cannot be fed from the same magma chamber? Is there a more convincing answer than, “Not very probable… “?

    • “Cary Grant himself could not have done this with panache.”

      But Bob Crane probably could have… It still didn’t turn out so well for him.

      [June 1978] “Crane had been bludgeoned to death with a weapon that was never found, though investigators believed it to be a camera tripod. An electrical cord had been tied around his neck.”

  23. Was with my son in a limestone quarry in Ignaberga in Sweden today. We were fossile hunting, with luck as well:) At the bottom in the wall I spotted these stones…was surprised, never seen them before. Know many of you ppl here are highly skilled in the art of minerals and such…can you please help us out? The red stone itself I have no Idea and that goes for thee green stuff too.


    Sissel found this in the dungeon; not sure why it got there…

    • looks like quartz from the refraction, but with some colors. The green part is challenging. Any cristals somewhere or is it only massive ? Did you try to scratch normal glass ?

    • Hi Johan! You have found this embedded IN the limestone, or was it rolling about on the floor? Could someone/something have transported it there? Right out of my sleeve I have 2 suggestions, but would have to do some comparing to be sure. And it has been smoothed in moving water, so it is hard to tell what it would look like when broken open.
      – It could be Jasper. Which does occur mostly in volcanic rocks. Jasper breaks in shard-like wedges, and is very hard.
      – Or, it could be a metamorphic rock like a pegmatite of granite with the red parts being felspar. Which forms on the edges of granite bodies, meaning it is also volcanic rock. Granite breaks sort of crumbling.
      I tend more to pegmatite granite, but both are not supposed to live in limestone…

      • yup, I thought of jasper also because of the green parts – but then there is the limestone environnement. Pegmatite ? No, the sample refraction is too high and there are no cristals.The sample seems to be homogeneous chemically speaking with some colors in the matrix.. When you have a pegmatite (only in granitic bodies), you see different cristals in a base of quartz, but there is often tourmaline (often black, but can be pink, green) or Beryl (green to grey, with hexagonal cristals), but here there are no visible cristals in the sample. Breaking the sample to see the form of the fracture could give insight. Also I don’t see any other cristals (pyrite, chalco, blende, you name it), which are quite common on pegmatite type veins.

  24. It is amazing how much there is to read sometimes while writing a post… It is coming, relax 🙂

  25. Thanks for enlighting us^^! It was not embedded in the bank it was more like rolling around…my first thought was that it had been transported from somewhere else to make the roads more firm in the quarry..lots of granite in the middle used as road material…but this was by the bank where they dig out limestone. Maybe got stuck in the wheels from one of the big machines? Anyway, thanks alot!

  26. Evenin all,
    Sorry I had to duck out when the Canaries debate started to get going last night; but my tea was ready 😀
    It’s a fascinating debate, as well as being the only debate here that I even feel half way competent to get into…
    At the front of my file where I keep printouts of juicy Canaries papers I have a map (borrowed from an elsevier paywalled paper) that shows the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries and the Cape Verdes as well as the coast of Africa, the MAR and the major fractures.
    I don’t think I’ll ever really understand the numbers, my approach is to try to build a mentalmodel…
    What do we have in the region described?
    The African plate moving North and the Atlantic Ocean getting wider; there is no subduction to speak of on either side of the Atlantic… There is also a purported schuperplume feeding the hotspots in all the archipeligoes.
    What does this suggest to me?
    Of course these are wild amateur ramblings… But:
    Maybe tectonic effects are sufficient to mostly explain the volcanic situation and the hotspots/ schuperplume are “induced” by said tectonic effects…
    @ Peter, sorry I accused you of losing a decimal point; I hadn’t grasped yr frames of reference…
    @ Arjanemm, sorry I haven’t been able to dig out the Lanzarote paper; that’s why I print the good’ns when I find um…

    • Hi Schteve, I had a British girl for 4 years, believe me, i understand what tea is about. Anything under a PG tips or a Tetley would couse havoc. Had to be served with a few grains of sucker, a swirl of milk and served between 95 and 97 degrees celsius. After a year i managed to make it complained free.
      As of now i’m still reading upon your earlier contributions.

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