Mount Chiginagak

Fumaroles on the north flank of Mount Chiginagak Photo courtesy Robert Dreeszen, March 28, 2014,  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=58161

Fumaroles on the north flank of Mount Chiginagak
Photo courtesy Robert Dreeszen, March 28, 2014, http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=58161

Mount Chiginagak sits some 600 km southwest of Anchorage, roughly situated on the Alaska Peninsula between Aniakchak and the Katmai Volcanic Complex.  It is a single peak that tops out at just over 2,200 M.  The peak itself is composed primarily of andesitic and pyroclastic layers.  It also has basalt lava flows with some evidence of recent pyroclastic flows.  It has several dacitic domes on its flanks which have collapsed from time to time in the past.  The mountain itself is glacier covered at its peak with a small crater some half a km in diameter.  There are active fumaroles on its flanks.  Due to its relative inactivity and remoteness, the mountain is not monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory.  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/volcanoes/volcinfo.php?volcname=Chiginagak

There are only a few recorded eruptions over the last 160 years, 1852, 1929 and 1971.  The 1852 event was reports of smoke from the summit.  The 1929 event is classed as a questionable eruption, primarily due to the inability to differentiate between what was happening on Chiginagak and neighboring volcanoes.  The 1971 event was a small ash eruption observed from Port Heiden that lasted less than a single day.  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/volcanoes/activity.php?volcname=Chiginagak&eruptionid=181&page=basic

In 1998, there were reports of snow melting and increased sulfur smells from the volcano along with more vigorous fumarole activity. There were reports of small clouds of black smoke and greenish yellow gas rising from two sources to 300 M or so above the mountain (likely with a strong sulfur dioxide / sulfuric acid content), and at least one morning a dark dusting of snow at the top of the mountain.  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/volcanoes/activity.php?volcname=Chiginagak&eruptionid=182&page=basic

Chiginagak Volcano as viewed from a tent camp on Nakalilok Bay, 12 miles to the south, late Sept. 2004 Image courtesy Rus Schwausch, Sept. 2004  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=4614

Chiginagak Volcano as viewed from a tent camp on Nakalilok Bay, 12 miles to the south, late Sept. 2004
Image courtesy Rus Schwausch, Sept. 2004 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=4614

The most recent Chiginagak activity took place in 2004 – 2005.  Increased heat flow into the vicinity of the crater melted snow and ice between November and May, creating a crater lake measuring some 400 M across and an estimated depth of 150 M.  Somewhere in early May 2005, there was a catastrophic release of the fluid in the lake, creating a highly acidic lahar and water discharge traveling some 27 km downstream, flowing into and acidifying Mother Goose Lake along with the headwaters of King Salmon River which flows into Bristol Bay near Ugashik and Pilot Point.  The lahar was accompanied by highly acidic aerosol cloud that killed surrounding foliage as high as 70 M above the water level of the creeks it traveled down.  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V21E0675S

Flow lobes of a dark gray, clay-rich lahar can be seen down the length of the south glacier at Chiginagak Volcano.  The lahar deposits resulted from the draining of the summit caldera lake sometime in early summer 2005. Image courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / USGS, August 20, 2005  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3329

Flow lobes of a dark gray, clay-rich lahar can be seen down the length of the south glacier at Chiginagak Volcano. The lahar deposits resulted from the draining of the summit caldera lake sometime in early summer 2005.
Image courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / USGS, August 20, 2005 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3329

Photo of Chiginagak crater lake after emptying.  Thermal hot spot is visible in the lake at the 1030 position about one third the distance from the center of the lake. Image – photo courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / AK Division of Geologic & Geophysical Surveys, August 20, 2005   http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3289

Photo of Chiginagak crater lake after emptying. Thermal hot spot is visible in the lake at the 1030 position about one third the distance from the center of the lake. Image – photo courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / AK Division of Geologic & Geophysical Surveys, August 20, 2005 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3289

Aerial surveys found a breach through the crater wall that allowed crater lake waters to continue to flow downstream for nearly four years afterwards.  At the end of that time, fumarolic activity in the crater had decreased to the point where the lake started freezing over during the winter.  Along with this, the lake level dropped to the point where it no longer was able to flow out of the breach.

Chiginagak crater lake breach at upper left of photo. Image – Courtesy Janet Shaefer, AVO / AK Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, August 20, 2005  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3286

Chiginagak crater lake breach at upper left of photo. Image – Courtesy Janet Shaefer, AVO / AK Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, August 20, 2005 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3286

Water out of the lake had significant sulfuric acid content, with high levels of dissolved metals and clays.  It had sufficient volume to inundate a lake, acidify the entire water column to a depth of 45 M to a pH of 2.9, destroying a salmon run and spawning habitat in the lake (red salmon usually spawn in lakes).  Between 2005 – 2011, the pH of the lake returned to the normal range of 6.9 measured in September 2011.

Janet Schaefer testing the highly acidic (pH 1.2) waters of upper Indecision Creek.   Photo courtesy AVO / USGS, June 19, 2006  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=10595

Janet Schaefer testing the highly acidic (pH 1.2) waters of upper Indecision Creek.
Photo courtesy AVO / USGS, June 19, 2006 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=10595

Volcano and Indecision Creeks which feed into Mother Goose Lake were supplied with crater lake water for some years after the breach, and have been slow to return to normal pH levels.  Indecision only made it back to a pH in the vicinity of 4 in August 2010.  Researchers believe the crater lake continues to drain under a glacier on the south side of the cone, with that water feeding into Indecision Creek and finally into Mother Goose Lake.  They also believe that similar crater lake breaches have happened in the recent past as there is anecdotal evidence from aerial photography and local lodges that something similar took place in the mid-1970s and early 1950s.  http://www.dggs.alaska.gov/pubs/id/25602

Reddish vegetation is acid-damaged crowberry leaves. Image – Photo courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / ADGGS, August 20, 2005,  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3362

Reddish vegetation is acid-damaged crowberry leaves. Image – Photo courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / ADGGS, August 20, 2005, http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=3362

As the water in the lake returns to normal, the salmon have started to return to the King Salmon River and Mother Goose Lake.

Ice and snow begin to re-fill the summit crater at Chiginagak volcano, following the removal of the summit glacial ice during the 2005 heating event and subsequent acid crater lake outflow. Image courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / ADGGS, Sept. 27, 2010  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=30682

Ice and snow begin to re-fill the summit crater at Chiginagak volcano, following the removal of the summit glacial ice during the 2005 heating event and subsequent acid crater lake outflow. Image courtesy Janet Schaefer, AVO / ADGGS, Sept. 27, 2010 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=30682

Carl wrote about this in November, 2013 as part of a column asking Volcano or Environmental Disaster?  https://volcanocafe.wordpress.com/2013/11/18/volcano-or-environmental-disaster/

Volcano Creek inlet to Mother Goose Lake, August 2005 Image courtesy Paul Tickner, August 2005  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=4263

Volcano Creek inlet to Mother Goose Lake, August 2005
Image courtesy Paul Tickner, August 2005 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=4263

 Conclusions

There are lots of ways for a volcano, even a relatively inactive volcano, to surprise us.  And this one certainly did.  There is a massive mine in the early stages of planning for the upper reaches of Bristol Bay.  The anti-mining groups are fighting it via a variety of arguments, most of which boil down to lurid tales warning against an earthquake caused collapse of a tailings dam, and subsequent dumping of acidic water with dissolved metals into the salmon spawning grounds, destroying them and local fishing for all time.

Indecision Creek coming from the right side of the view has a pH of 1.2.  In early summer 2005 the crater lake at Chiginagak Volcano down this drainage.  An accompanying release of acidic aerosols flowed down the valley and caused the vegetation damage seen here at the valley bottom. Image courtesy Cyrus Read, AVO / USGS, June 21, 2006  http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=10589

Indecision Creek coming from the right side of the view has a pH of 1.2. In early summer 2005 the crater lake at Chiginagak Volcano down this drainage. An accompanying release of acidic aerosols flowed down the valley and caused the vegetation damage seen here at the valley bottom. Image courtesy Cyrus Read, AVO / USGS, June 21, 2006 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=10589

Interesting that very thing just happened downstream of Chiginagak in 2005, a completely natural event, and the fish outside that particular watershed were not impacted at all.  One lake and stream were damaged for a period of years, but the rest of Bristol Bay seems to be doing well.

Christmas morning fumarole activity at Chiginagak volcano seen from Ugashik Village  Image courtesy Roland Briggs, Dec 25, 2013   http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=57601

Christmas morning fumarole activity at Chiginagak volcano seen from Ugashik Village
Image courtesy Roland Briggs, Dec 25, 2013 http://www.avo.alaska.edu/images/image.php?id=57601

Agimarc

 

And here again, the Friday riddles. The bar is open! 

1. Bane of the Rattlesnake; It’s on the wrong track! (Clue: “I’d bring up Trafalgar, but that would be nauti!”) Answer: Trinidade (and Martim Vaz) in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, discovered by Estêvão da Gama aboard HMS Rattlesnake, dinojura44, 1 point. 

2. In a field of one-hit-wonders, I stand alone. (Clue: You could have seen the last eruption at sunset. Final clue: It sounds like it’s in California, but it’s not!) Answer: San Francisco Mountain in the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona. “San Francisco” was a one-hit wonder by Scott McKenzie in 1967 and the mountain stands out amongst many monogenetic volcanic cones. Sissel, 1 point. 

3. Special sheep and loony toons? (Clue: The sheep are barbarians!) Answer: Tarso Toon in the Tibesti mountains. The Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) are native to rocky mountains in North Africa, Kelda, 1 point.

Score board
13 Sissel
8 Inannamoon667
7 Kelda
5 KarenZ
6 Shérine France
4 Dinojura44
2 Alison
2 Evan Chugg
1 Diana Barnes
1 Edward

159 thoughts on “Mount Chiginagak

  1. So, what is the likelihood that nearby Mother Goose Lake is due to a maar or collapse structure?


    Wrong track? Well, the Mongoose is not native to the same habitat as rattlesnakes, but anything that can take out a cobra should certainly be a bane to rattlers.

    … though it may have a problem dealing with this Cobra,

    • Geo – Don’t think so. First, it is off the line of volcanoes going down the Alaska Peninsula, and volcanic activity in that part of the state seems to be limited to things in the line. Katmai is one of the few places along the entire Aleutian Arc with a volcano off the line (Griggs). Second is that there seem to be a line of lakes up and down the peninsula to the west of the line of volcanoes.

      Other point about mining that I didn’t pick up on when looking at this, was that if this has happened multiple times – early 1950s, mid 1970s and 2005, the salmon always came back. They are remarkable tough fish, well adapted to the environment they inhabit. Cheers –

      • Thanks for that. As a reward, I give you something … “odd”.

        Okay, it’s not odd to them, nor is it odd to those who followed this when if first hit the dance venues. Today is Friday and somehow I managed to get through the day without have to do a mondo drive. I even had a fortunate turn of luck and located the M/B that Dell was pestering us about. Dropped that off with it’s return shipping label so now Dell can kiss my arse and I don’t have to eat the cost of the board. So, think of it as a celebratory tune. 😀 Besides, Anita Doth’s pseudo roman silver bodice looks quite nice. I think she is playing the part of the pin-ball in the video.

        And another Nordic Fabricated group whose song made it into a commercial. See if you can id the song. 🙂

        As far as I know, no ATMs or picnic tables were abused in the production of this commercial.

  2. Thanks for the good read 🙂
    As I wrote in my post on Chiginagak it is actually the largest environmnental catastrophy in the US, without even erupting.

  3. No. 2 Rangitoto Island, Auckland volcanic field. Of the 53 volcanoes, it is the only one that is not monogenetic

    • Rangitoto is a good answer. If it is not that, we could try Laachersee, though Rangitoto fits better.

    • And… with 53 rolling in, I hope that I have as much energy as Angus Young (lead guitarist) does at 54. (at the time of this performance)

      AC/DC is one of the more renowned things that Australia is known for.

      RIP Bon Scott, original lead singer.

      Back in Black, was released only five months later, and was a tribute to Scott. It went on to become the second best-selling album in history”

      • Best selling albums is a fun subject to discuss the subjectivity on…
        According to Guinness Book of Records the most sold Album is Thriller by Michael Jackson. At a respectable 52 million it did not do Bad.
        But according to the laws of mathematics it is outperformed by a factor 5 by Pink Floyds “The Dark Side of the Moon”. Yepp, that is a staggering quarter of a billion Albums and still selling strong, in fact so strong that it is still on the Billboard list of Hot Albums. I am currently owning my third version.
        Soo…
        1. The Dark Side of The Moon, 250 and counting
        2. Wish you where here, 150 and counting
        3. The wall, 100 and counting
        4. Thriller by Jackson, 52
        5. Back in Black, 45 something and still selling good

        This of course made the members of Pink Floyd stinking rich. In fact so rich that the surviving three original Members all are on another list, the Forbes billionaires hotlist. This prompted one of them to move off the face of the planet for a full year for tax reasons. If you ever want to study Tax-schemes, study musicians in the eighties and nineties. Musical Imagination and Creativity paired with the best experts on the planet gave a few examples that leaves the rest of the corporate world far behind and is today used as examples in Business Schools.
        The move off the planet scheme also produced roughly 80 percent of all UFO sightings in the year 1991…

        • Word of the day…
          “Procaffinating”
          It is the action you do when you drink coffee and procrastinate at the same time… The word describes my mornings perfectly.

        • Been there, got the T-shirt!

          Though tomorrow, I have to get off my ass and tear down that printer on my bench to see if the sensor flag is recoverable or whether I have to order one.

          I was quite happy with myself a couple of weeks ago. I had to disassemble the front end of an HP 4250 cold. I had not been in one of those units in a couple of years or so. The fact that I remembered the way in was not quite as satisfying as being able to reverse the process and put it back together. I never had to resort to my crutch, I had the manual out in the truck but didn’t need it after all.

    • I count the small rocks in the water… There is more small islets out in the water now compared to when the eruption started. Why do I do this? I do it as a means of tracking the inflation of the volcano, and it is still inflating even though the eruption is ongoing. This will be a long eruption, or the Island growth causes a big slide and it all goes Krakatau. The risk for slide is actually quite big due to the steep slope down the trench, and the bulge has grown quite large by now.

      • The eruption has been going for some months now. From the pictures there seems to be a larger plume than before. Also it shows still on modis hotspots.

    • Looking more and more like Rangitoto everyday (apart from the fact that 98% of it is under the water – a trifling difference, really).

      • I think more that it looks like Hawai’i but with steeper sides.
        The side of the volcano facing towards the trench is realy steep, and with the volcano increasingly bulging I would not be surprised if a flank collapse occured, and when the water hits the magma reservoir it could become spectacular.
        I would say that 99.9 percent of Nishinoshima is underwater… It is a flipping huge volcano.

        • It is actually amazing how much the place is growing. Now it has passed the 1 square kilometer mark. And the interesting thing is that the increase in size is increasing in a linear manner, but the amount of material needed to make that size increase is almost squared since the depth increases all the time as the Island grows.
          Conservatively the amount of ejected material has now passed the 0.5 cubic kilometer mark. But it will take another cubic kilometer for the island to grow to two square kilometers in size, and the next square kilometer will take 2 cubic kilometers of lava.
          And all the time the volcano continues to inflate.

  4. I’ve learned more about rattlesnake predators than I ever expected to need to know, and the only volcanic one I have found is Crow Lagoon so probably I’m the one on the wrong track. Standing alone on the edge of a field of (mostly) monogenetic volcaanoes isn’t helping either, and I hope that the special sheep aren’t Cheviots again ’cause I can’t match them to a loony toon. I think I’ll go back to building a new PC.

  5. Large earthquake showing up on the Icelandic charts at the moment – I think it might be the 6.4 that happened in Greece at about 9.30 (UK time). No news on this yet on BBC etc.

  6. 3 Ijen volcano with the acidic crater lake (referring to loonly toons). Don’t know about special sheep, but Java has a high sheep population.

  7. 1. Ants eat rattlesnakes, and the scientific name is Formica, and there is a Leo Formica Volcano on Piton de la Fournaise.

  8. No 1 Horseshoe Cone or Horseshoe Island

    Bane the rattlesnake lived / lives at Muleshoe Ranch. Horseshoe was the nearest I could get to Muleshoe 🙂

  9. No. 2 Carrán-Los Venados is a monogentic volcanic field in Chile composed of about 50 scoria cones and maars and one stratovolcano – Los Guindos

  10. #1 … I think it’s Trinidade (and Martim Vaz) in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, discovered by Estêvão da Gama aboard HMS Rattlesnake. It’s amazing what I learn when I try to fathom out the answers to the Volcanocafé riddles (thanks for the extra clue!)

  11. No. 2 = White Horse Bluff in the Well-Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field. It stands alone because it was a subaqueous volcano.

  12. 3 The Nut, an old volcanic plug in Stanley, Tasmania (special sheep = Merino which comes from Australia, loony toons is kind of nuts).

  13. No. 2 Paricutin in the Michoacán–Guanajuato Volcanic Field in Mexico. It was born in a corn field in 1943 and 3 people died from lightning strikes during its eruptions.

  14. 2 again: Tamu Massif, Earth’s largest single volcano, located within the huge underwater mountain range called Shatsky Rise formation about 1609 kilometers east of Japan.

    • Pretty good, Carl. As an old trombonist, I have always been a sucker for brass in a rock band. Maybe I need to point you to Lighthouse out of Canada if you like jazz rock.

      Here’s an example of the KC rock band The Rainmakers; a few minor hits here in the US that gold and platinum in Norway. I have not a clue why. I think they are a lot of fun. Cheers –

    • I actually think the Declaration of Independence was a pretty ballsy move.

      Summary: “We’re tired of your shit, blow it out your arse” (But done politely for the time)

      And to think, the current level taxation is in excess of what pissed off Jefferson et al.

      • 17th century taxation was perhaps *slightly* different than modern taxation. Not arguing in favor of one way or another as both sides have their arguments, but it’s really just comparing apples to oranges right now.

        To me, the biggest issue in modern USA politics is income disparity. Both parties agree on this, both promise “solutions” to stop this, but both are being funded by the people with power, so it’s a losing battle no matter which side you support.

        • “Both parties agree on this” → That’s because there is effectively no difference in the two.

          One puts in regulations that strip constitutional rights from the individual, and spends at 4 times the rate of previous presidents, his replacement, who is on record of speaking unfavorably of those actions then turns around and strengthens the governments power and goes flipping nuts at spending. The corruption knows no bounds.

          Perfido is not in El Hierro, he (actually, they) are in Washington DC. That is one reason why I fully support the idea of a large scale shelf collapse off the Maryland coast while both houses are in session. The idea carried forth in Tool’s Aenima is right on the money, just on the wrong coast. The US is in dire need of an Enema.., in Washington. Just flush it all away.

          Edit: Changed the Aenima link to the Meytal Cohen drum cover. The girl’s got talent and deserves the link. No change to the lyrics, which carry the meaning that I intended. GeoLoco would appreciate the change.

          • To me, the thing that bothers me the most is how candidates found a glitch in the system known as pandering to the public, and not giving a crap on following through on campaign promises. I understand that even for a leader, it’s not always as easy as signing a bill to get something constituted, but it’s just so readily apparent that too many politicians are comfortable with lying simply to gain office.

            • Oh, they will speak of accountability until they are blue in the face… but it is quite rare to see one that is actually held accountable for their actions.

              Toss a few of them in Ft Leavenworth or in a State Prison (where they are eligible to work on a road gang) and they might glean a slight understanding of accountability. (and quite possibly a new friend or two, in the shower. Then they will personally understand Ron White’s “Grape Jelly” joke.)

          • All they did was rediscover a way to exploit the dangers of a pure democracy as outlined by Plato in The Republic. Their streak of nefarious genius was in circumventing the intentional slowing down of the process by the founders. The US had a “representative democracy” specifically for the purpose of slowing down the action of government as the various parties argued about whatever the topic of the day was.

            Error #1 was allowing them to be paid enough to where they did not have to go home to work for a living.

            Washington breeds it’s own way of dishing out power and money. Hell, Congress and Senate get a mandated pay increase every friken year unless they hold a specific vote to deny a pay raise. And when the political pandering asshats vote a pay raise down in order to curry favor with the masses, it will be along next year.

            A similar attrocity happens in all government departments. One that I’ve seen personally. If you do not spend all of the money that your budget has been allocated, you get a reduced budget next year. That’s how one of our shops wound up with 15 brooms and a new chair for their work bench. They had to use up the Optar funds or be penalized. It didn’t matter that they already had perfectly functioning chairs. They just bartered the chair off to another work-center that had something they needed… or had a work request for that work-center and the chair put them at the top of the job list. Inter work-center haggling goes on quite a bit, which is not a bad thing. It builds cohesion. But when you have too much stuff the somewhat older stuff gets DRMO’d. (Defence Re-utilization and Managment) where it sits for a while so that other commands can come pick through the stuff. Anything that is not scarfed up gets sold at auction. I went to a few of those at a nearby base. One guy bought a pallet of NiCad batteries at a pretty cheap price. I picked up a vintage tube based O’scope just for the “old-school” history aspect of it. One item that was up for auction was a tail-hook for an A-7. The excess spending is never going to stop unless “base-line budgeting” is eliminated. The way base-line budgeting works, is that they take a look at what you spend last cycle, and add a few percent to the next cycle’s expenditure. repeat, ad nauseam.

  15. I don’t give a crap if you are handicapped or not. If the vehicle is too large for you to safely operate and park, you should not be driving it.

    BTW, congratulations on being able to afford such an overwhelming compensation for your self perceived shortcomings. You do know that they make a pill for that. Right?

  16. And for those who thought todays cryptography was safe up untill we get into quantum computing… One of Lurkings Black Swans has happened in Mathematics. This is from math-list I follow.

    “FYI — Upon perusal of the referenced paper (link below), this new discrete
    log algorithm appears more practical than the article below suggests.

    It would be prudent to move smartly to replace these types of crypto
    algorithms.

    The biggest risk is for systems that can’t be easily upgraded with software
    updates–e.g., crypto hardwired into international standards, hardware-based
    systems, implanted medical devices, etc.

    Algorithmic improvements of this type are “black swan” events, which can
    instantly wipe out entire crypto systems, much like the dinosaurs were wiped
    out by a single asteroid hit. As Dan Geer has pointed out numerous times,
    the security ecosystem needs *diversity* to allow at least some systems to
    remain standing after such a black swan event. Software systems also need
    to be flexible enough to quickly failover to backup crypto protocols.

    “Perfect Forward Secrecy” is even more important, so that previously
    compromised traffic doesn’t threaten future traffic.

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140515163739.htm

    New algorithm shakes up cryptography, CNRS, 15 May 2014

    “A quasi-polynomial algorithm for discrete logarithm in finite fields of
    small characteristic”

    http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/400.pdf


    461 KB (471,719 bytes)”

  17. I do not have anything witty to say since I am on my first morning cup…
    But I do have a day off, and there is a BBQ with a couple of friends in two hours or so, and the coffee is slowly kicking in. It is a sunny day outside and 25C. That is unusual, I had expected it to rain heavily since I am off from work, it usually does.
    On TV there is a documentary about Finnish Swimsuit weddings, the woman wears the usual attire but all men are wearing swimtrunks. I am still waiting for the “why” part. I like Finnish documentaries, their culture is basically the same as ours up untill you stumble upon something really utterly bisarre.
    Hm, come think about it… It is the same as the US culture (from my standpoint), it is 99.9 the same as ours, but the remaining 0.1 is totally out there.
    On the other hand, human nature is the same in all cultures, probably due to all of us having to eat and that makes us shit and then we grow tired and go to bed and somewhere along we discover that it is nice to boink with something… I have travelled the world and I am still looking for a culture that is below the 98 percent in the being the same. The most out there I have met was bushmen in Kalahari, they were 98 percenters. I though think the 2 percent difference was in their advantage and that it is “us” who lost 2 percent.

    Morning musing over…

    • “The Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) is a species of caprid (goat-antelope) native to rocky mountains in North Africa. Six subspecies have been described. Although it is rare in its native North Africa, it has been introduced to North America, southern Europe, and elsewhere. It is also known as aoudad, waddan, arui, and arruis.” From wikipedia.

      Barbary sheep with a funny voice:

  18. 3 “Waw an Namus (also spelled Wau-en-Namus, Arabic: واو الناموس‎ – Oasis of Mosquitoes[1]) is a volcanic field, cone and caldera in the southern Fezzan region of southern Libya”. From Wikipedia.
    Another name: Dūr Waddān.

  19. Maybe Yellowstone, although previous hints suggest probably not! Don’t think my brain will cope with the strain of riddles tonight. Had the good fortune to come by a couple of tickets to the R1 Big Weekend in Glasgow, am totally shattered, have massive blisters on feet and pretty much lost my voice – but had such a good time it was well worth it. 🙂

  20. No correct answers. Remember the volcano is in Africa, these special sheep live there and the answer is obvious 😉 . I´ll give everyone 40 min before lifting the secret 🙂

    • All right, you missed it by 15 km 🙂 , since I am going to sleep now, I´ll leave the decision to Matt whether you get another chance 😉

    • Ding! Tarso Toon in the Tibesti mountains!
      Heh… I didn’t think they’d use the riddles I submitted, or that they would be that evil!!!!! Of course, these volcanoes were pretty obscure, but it’s not like we haven’t solved some tough ones before!

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s