The Volcanic Landmarks of Oahu, Hawaii – The Conclusion

Hanauma Crater

Hanauma Bay. Image by ErgoSum88  (Wikipedia – public domain)

Hanauma Bay. Image by ErgoSum88 (Wikipedia – public domain)

The Hanauma Crater was created during the Honolulu volcano series. The volcanic vents that formed Hanauma Crater opened on the seafloor about 32,000 years ago. Upwelling magma vaporized the ocean water and steam explosions atomized the magma into fine ash. The explosions built cones of ash, which solidified into tuff. The eruptions shattered the coral reef and basalt sea floor and scattered pieces that are now embedded in the tuff. Wave erosion eventually cut through the low, southeast wall of the crater, forming the current bay.

The Hawaiian word hana means “bay”; the word uma means “curved.” Thus, one translation of Hanauma is “curved bay.” Uma also means “stern of a canoe.”  It is unlikely any villages were built at Hanauma in ancient times because of its hot climate, low rainfall, nutrient-poor soil and lack of fresh water. But the Hawaiians definitely fished there.  The bay was used as a recreational area by the Hawaiian nobility, who fished, entertained visitors, and sponsored games there.   It was also used as a layover and as a navigational lookout point when the waters between Oahu and Molokai were too rough for traveling in their canoes.

Bernice Pauahi Bishop was a Hawaiian princess, the last direct descendant of the Royal House of Kamehameha.  In 1857 she inherited a family estate totaling 16,011 acres.  In 1883 she inherited another 353,000 acres from her cousin, Ruth Keʻelikolani, the royal governess of the Islands.  Bernice was instantly the largest landowner in the Islands, in personal possession of about 9 percent of the Hawaiian landmass.  In 1928, the City and County of Honolulu established Koko Head Regional Park which encompassed Koko Head, Hanauma Bay, and Koko Crater by buying it for one dollar from the estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop. A deed restriction limited its use to public parks and rights of way.

In the 1930s the road along Hanauma Bay’s corner of Oahu was paved and a few other amenities provided that made it easier to visit the beach and reef. After the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, barbed wire was placed at the beach and a bunker was constructed for use by sentries. The Bay area reopened after the war and became even more visitor friendly after blasting in the reef for a transoceanic cable provided room for swimming.  In 1967 Hanauma Bay was designated a Marine Protected Area by the state division of Fish and Game.  Everything became protected, from the fish to the reef, to the sand itself. A volunteer group set up a booth at the beach and began teaching visitors about conservation of the reef and fish who lived there. I find this a real oxymoron because the next thing that happened came about in the 1970’s.  The City cleared more area in the reef for swimming, made an additional parking lot, and shipped in white sand from the North Shore, leaving Hanauma Bay increasingly more attractive to visitors.  The white sand really stands out in pictures because the bay has natural green sand from the abundance of Olivine.  By the late 1980s tourists were brought in by the busloads, sometimes as many as 13,000 visitors in one day.  These crowds stirred up sediment, disturbed and trampled the coral and algae, dropped trash, fed the fish and left a slick of suntan lotion on the bay’s surface.  Consequently, the beautiful multicolored coral reef closest to the beach died; only its blackened skeleton is visible today.

Fortunately things started to change in the 1990’s.  Commercial filming was banned, beach access was limited to full capacity of the parking lot and a fee was levied to non-residents.  In August 2002, the Marine Education Center was opened at the entrance to the bay, where still today new visitors must watch a short film and receive instruction about conservation of the Bay’s resources. Upon watching the film, visitors are allowed to sign a form and skip any subsequent film if they should return within the following 365 days.  Today Hanauma Bay sees an average of 3000 visitors a day, or around a million visitors a year. The majority are tourists.  The bay is closed to tourists on Tuesdays in order to allow the fish a day of feeding without interruption by swimmers.

One of the danger spots in the bay is the Cable Channel, a small channel on the west side of the reef that was dredged in the 1950s to receive a trans-Pacific telephone cable. Strong rip currents may run through this channel and carry swimmers and snorkelers beyond the reef into the outer bay. The left point of the bay is called Palea, “brushed aside”, and the right point is Pai’olu’olu, “lift gently”. On each side of the bay a wave-cut terrace a few feet above sea level provides pedestrian access to each point. The terrace to Pai’olu’olu Point ends in a rocky cove called the Witches’ Brew. The prevailing trade winds push swells and debris into the cove, a natural catch basin, resulting in the name Witches’ Brew. The terrace on the opposite side of the bay, heading out to Palea Point, ends at an inlet called the Toilet Bowl. At the head of the inlet a small pool is separated from the sea by a natural rock wall. Swells that surge into the inlet cause the water in the pool to rise and fall like the flushing and filling of a toilet bowl. It has been closed due to injuries suffered by visitors. This video is really bad parenting, but shows the Toilet Bowl in action and you can really see the olivine in the rock.

This website from the University of Hawaii Education Program has some nice, short videos of the geology of Hanauma Bay.

Koko Crater

Koko Crater, Hanauma Bay and Hawaii Kai. Image from Wikipedia (by Mbz1, CC-BY-SA-2.5).

Koko Crater, Hanauma Bay and Hawaii Kai. Image from Wikipedia (by Mbz1, CC-BY-SA-2.5).



Koko Crater can be seen directly north of Hanauma Bay.  It was created about 10,000 years ago during the Honolulu Volcano Series and is the tallest tuff cone on Oahu.  It was originally named “Kohelepelepe” meaning “traveling vagina” in Hawaiian.  Koko Crater is 1,208 feet (368.2 meters) with an opening on one side, hence its name.   Koko’s crater is 200 acres.  Also like Diamond Head and The Punchbowl, it had a military presence during World War II.  There is a bunker at the summit and was used as a radar installation.  A rail tram was installed to move men and equipment up and down the mountain.


Koko crater arch. Image from ( CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Person crossing a natural arch at Koko crater. Image from ( CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Koko Crater is accessible.  You can drive to the parking lot by the Botanical Gardens and walk in. Koko Crater is also a popular hiking destination, but it is not for the faint of heart or the less physically able. You can hike the old fashioned way.

Or you can do it this way using the old tram rail, straight up to the top. Parts of this are in very bad condition.


In 1958, the Department of Parks and Recreation set aside for development 60 acres of the inner slopes and basin of Koko Crater for a botanical garden. This garden focuses on the cultivation of rare and endangered dryland plants.  Xeriscape concepts (reduction or elimination of supplemental water) are used to transform this dry landscape into a garden where plants suitable to desert-like conditions can flourish.  The gardens have been subdivided into four major geographic sectors: Hawaii, the Americas, Madagascar and Africa.

Adjacent to the Botanical Gardens is the equestrian center, Koko Crater Stables.  It was constructed in 1960 and encompasses 10 acres.  The stables offer lessons, trail riding, horsemanship skills and a summer camp for kids.

Mānana Island

Mānana Island, Oahu, Hawaii. Photo D Ramey Logan 1 (Wikipedia, CC-BY-SA 3.0).

Mānana Island, Oahu, Hawaii. Photo D Ramey Logan 1 (Wikipedia, CC-BY-SA 3.0).

The final volcanic landmark of Oahu is Manana Island, the northeast end of the rift.  In the Hawaiian language, mānana means “buoyant”. The islet is commonly referred to as Rabbit Island, because its shape as seen from the nearby Oahu shore looks something like a rabbit’s head and because it was once inhabited by introduced rabbits. The rabbit colony was established by John Adams Cummins in the 1880s when he ran the nearby Waimānalo plantation. The rabbits were eradicated about a hundred years later because they were destroying the native ecosystem, an important seabird breeding area.  Mānana is a tuff cone with two vents. The highest point on the islet rises to 361 ft (110 m). The island is 2,319 ft (707 m) long and 2,147 ft (654 m) wide and has an area of about 63 acres.

Today Mānana Island is a State Seabird Sanctuary – home to Wedge-tailed Shearwaters, Sooty Terns, Brown Noddys, Bulwer’s Petrels, and Red-tailed Tropicbirds, and numerous Hawaiian Monk Seals. It is illegal to land on the islet without permission from the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.

I hope you all enjoyed this series.  Doing the research was very interesting for me.  A question that came up previously was why some of the pictures of the volcanoes in this series are so green and others brown.  I learned while researching this post that it is seasonal.  The winter is the rainy season when everything turns that lush green.  During the summer, it becomes very dry and everything turns yellow or brown.  For a Midwesterner like me, January in Hawaii would sure beat cleaning 10 inches of snow off my car to go to work!





And here again Matt´s Friday riddles! This time look for volcanoes and a geology term. 

1) Land of these: Image. Two answers: Buckland volcano in Queensland, Australia and…, Sissel, 2 points. 1 bonus point for inannamoon667 for finding the name “Buckland”. 

2) Home of a famous husky and a natural sauna. Clue: Known for its wines, it was once captured with a corkscrew. Answer: Pantelleria. Operation Husky, the allied invasion of Sicily during WWII, was based there. There is also a natural sauna, which you can visit, that is said to be the love nest of Calypso and Ulysses. The allied operation to capture this island during WWII was called Operation Corkscrew. Inannamoon667, 1 point. 

3) The light burns forever on the nation’s highest peak. Answer: Mt Aragat, Armenia’s highest mountain.  St. Gregory the Illuminator brought Christianity to Armenia, and supposedly during one of his prayers at this mountain, a lantern that burns forever appeared; supposedly it is still there, but visible only to those pure of heart. Sissel, 2 points. 

4) This faction fights on the side of water. Answer: Liquefaction, Sissel, 2 points. 

5)  I was not defeated by Hernando de Soto, and I am not a volcano… I am a piece of one.  Answer: Tuscaloosa seamount, a chunk of Oahu that fell off in a giant landslide, with a tsunami at least 100 meters high! Tuscaloosa was a native chief who battled de Soto, and for whom the city in Alabama is named. Inannamoon667, 2 points. 


Score board:

9 Sissel
5 KarenZ
5 Inannamoon667
2 Dinojura44
4 Bobbi
1 RenatoRio
1 Talla




233 thoughts on “The Volcanic Landmarks of Oahu, Hawaii – The Conclusion

  1. While Pantelleria is on our minds, how about the view from below?

    And for the military airplane lovers

  2. Possible missing person!
    Hello, for the last five days I have tried to find out if the Swizz photographer named Stefan Kohler is okay. He left 7 days ago to walk on fot across Iceland. He was last heard from 50 kilometers south of Myvátn on the road to Askja. This was more than five days ago.
    Since he is a member in here I am kindly asking if anyone knows him in here and have heard from him in the last five days.
    I have asked Slysavarnafelagidh Landsbjörg in Iceland to keep an eye open for him. So, if someone has heard from him it would be good to know before they start to make a full on search for Stefan.
    Thank you in advance!

    • I doubt there would be a direct connection, but the fact that there are remote volcanic fields in the area signifies that there could be something that would pop up here.

    • Paraphrasing e-mail from AVO:

      Earthquakes are fault-source based, with the quakes occurring on normal faults in a west – NW strike. Current geologic understanding of the area includes older faults, no active faults with surface expression. Efforts to detect surface expression are hampered by swampy terrain and limited bedrock exposure. Fault movement has been consistent with tension rather than intrusion, therefore no magma.

      Cheers –

  3. Earthquakes continue at Askja. One was down 15 km. Good site for future eruption I here if not immediate.

    • I will though than answer that it is the wrong way to count, and that the statistical period is to short.
      One should really count the amount of energy released, and during then Tens there has been quite a few eruption above mean average. So average energy output is probably closer to neutral value.
      And, anything spanning less than 100 years would be rather silly for Geological Times 😉

    • I’ll give you volcanic activity : there was a 7 quakes swarm at El Hierro 2 days ago. Isn’t that a sign worth 0.32? 😉

  4. Peekaboo…
    28.07.2014 13:15:14 65.451 -16.520 11.0 km 0.6 99.0 13.8 km NNW of Herðubreiðarfjöll
    28.07.2014 10:43:48 65.465 -16.617 6.6 km 0.5 99.0 16.9 km NNW of Herðubreiðarfjöll

    Did not expect these ones. Frémrinamúr would be a perfect example of one of Lurkings Black Swans.

  5. For those who have not yet understood the prodigious size of Bárdarbunga yet. Photograph by Stefan Kohler. The white thingamabit disappearing into the clouds is the volcano.
    Image and video hosting by TinyPic
    Stefan Kohler™

    • It is most likely a combination of wind and nearby hydrothermal activity, nothing is currently pointing to anything like an eruption.

      • Or that yes. 🙂 I had no real answer since I am not familiar with the area at all, but I was certain that its nothing to really point at an eruption since the Fed, Mjo and strain stations dont seem to be out of the norm. At least for now. 😀

      • P.S.: After seeing these quakes along the main rift, I thought to kill some free time by checking back for some Skaftár Fires posts, and I stumbled upon the whole series of that event! And WOW, so much info and so many details. Superb stuff! 🙂

          • Yea did now, sweet stuff too! Man I had no idea back in 2010 that Iceland can be so much more interesting than what Eyja did 😀

          • One early theory that we had trundle through here was that the rifting fissures of Eldga, Skaftar etc, were essentially the draining of a central volcano. Carl has noted that many of them start their opening further from the central volcano and then work their way up the fissure swarm. How that all dynamically works is a bit ephemeral. A likely mechanism is the formation of fresh melt under the decompression environment of the rift zone. The “Dead Zone” region sees about 18 mm/yr expansion. And, noting the ideas from that article, it probably isn’t very solid down there.

        • Thanks, that series could actually be published as a scientific paper, it is based on enough raw data and sources. It is the article series I am most proud of have written. I am happy that you like it!

  6. Above Cryphia and DFM wondered what Boris Behncke is up to…
    Here is the photographic evidence of what he is doing. I guess he is trying to figure out why Etna has changed her behaviour again.
    Image and video hosting by TinyPic
    Boris Behncke™

    • I’m sure that Boris has a full plate in front of him right now. I just wanted to say “hello from VC” we’re all a bit envious right now.

  7. Couldn’t lurk for long! For those of us who are interested in the social and historical impact of possible eruptions, here’s an article I’ve stolen from an archaeology site about the AD536 event. We’ve discussed this a lot and the article doesn’t come to any conclusion and is written for general readers, but it does have a good bibliography for those who want to read further.

  8. Wikihow has a list about how to survive a volcanic eruption. The cartoons seem a bit Southparkish, but otherwise it´s a pretty good and comprehensive check list I think.

    • LOL! But they should have asked the boys as well – but they might have signed and meant it! A warning not to sign anything (especially on camera) unless you know exactly what is meant. 😀

  9. Is IMO on vacation or something? It takes them forever to correct and to even plot the quakes, since the automatic detection also seems to be on vacation. xD

  10. This swarm is interesting, the early shallow quakes was purely tectonic, but then came the 15km that was magmatectonic, then came a few tectonic and another magmatectonic. All of them are a bit fuzzy though so even the first ones are happening near non-sollids. These are definitely not shrinkage quakes. My guess is that we are seeing a bit of magma moving up through a pretty open magma conduit. No HT at all though.
    Interesting, but nothing more. (so far).

  11. A while back, mention was made that should stuff go bad with an invasion into the Nordic countries that someone might come to their aid. That is probably not a sound thing to believe. At least not from us. We are fully on the stupid track, and it will be a miracle if we as a nation, survive.

    Research has shown that the size of the average human brain case is growing smaller. (Smaller than the average Neanderthal) This is typically explained away as an increase in efficiency of the human brain needing lesser material to accomplish the same tasking. I think this is erroneous, we are just growing more stupid.

    • Agree. Whats worse? These people are gaining power, as fewer smart people are up against these and sheer numbers of stupidty overwhelm them. Thats how the Soviets defeated Germany just before middle of last century. Russia is smaller, so a little a less problem.

      • Scratching my geographical head here… The Soviet Union used to be much larger than Germany both in physical size and in population.

        • Well, Soviet Union schrunk to be just Russia. Germany has swallowed most of EU, including France etc. so that includes ALL of Europe (or practically) now 😉
          A court has ordered Russia to pay some tillions, It can not do that and will not. That one part is (or in my mind) will Domioe-effect. The battlefield has yet to be defined. Ukrain shurely already be part of it. *rant*

          edited by Spica at request

          • Typos (TM)” Sorry folks *red face*
            Dragom please insert “most of EU”, “trillion” and “shurely”.
            (“Susely” I hope forgives be dragged in here.)

          • There can’t be a war between Russia and Europe or the US. Except for a proxy war or economic war (already happening). Because total war would become utterly destructive. Do we really, we Europe or US, want war? I don’t think so. We would lost much of what we built in past decades.

            But people can be stupid.

            In the past total wars were (not stuff like Gaza but major wars between major powers) first they were fought with simple weapons, then tanks, then airplane bombs, the next if it occurs will be fought at least with intercontinental ballistic missiles and nuclear bombs. Equals a global devastation.

            • I am not hoping for war, but I think it will happen. Like volcanoes, they will erupt.

            • No, they will probably attack the Nordic countries in the next ten years. You live to far away to see the new cold war that we see here every single day now.

            • Yes I do agree with you even though I said it really can’t happen.

              I think we will see a war (or actually a series of wars) starting across the world, and cause devastation. As it evolves the economy will collapse further and people rebel more violently. It’s easy to see that one thing leads to another. Much is going to change dramatically but overall it will be a pretty chaotic period. That seems really difficult to avoid.

              It’s difficult to see a scenery where the tension just stays at tension level, in all tense regions (Koreas and China, Middle East, East Europe) that are simmering more and more. It’s also difficult to foresee the wars evolving to a full scale global nuclear war before social order and economy breaks down just before that step. And such societal and global breakdown actually prevents the full disaster from happening.

              So, I think the likely scenario will be that: many wars envolving and just it gets really ugly, everthing breaks down and violent revolutions and civil wars begin everywhere. Of course the other sceneries can occur (no war at all or full global war), but they seem unlikely.

              Question is: how much time we have until then? I assume we are at this midpoint on this crises, and several years have passed since the simmering tensions brought us into the present situation. I thus think that this set of events will occur by the end of this decade.

            • Irpsit July 31, 2014 at 22:27

              “As it evolves the economy will collapse further and people rebel more violently. It’s easy to see that one thing leads to another. Much is going to change dramatically but overall it will be a pretty chaotic period. That seems really difficult to avoid.

              Question is: how much time we have until then?”

              The future is now. In other words, it has already started. Welcome to the war.

              I’m a proponent of some oddball theories, some of these I have reveled in shooting down simply because I bought into them at some point, may have looked at it in depth, and dismissed it out of hand as not being supported by the data. When someone trots one of them out, and if I still have the data available that decimated it in my mind, I whip it out and bludgeon them about the head and shoulders with it until they go away. Even with the entertainment value of that, I still keep an eye out for something that might give the idea some measure of merit. After all, I am a hominid and hominids revel in pattern recognition.

              Several years ago, a dude over in Russia came up with an idea about how western economies operated. He eventually got tangled up in Stalin’s Great Purge and was eliminated.

              Many knowledgeable people will poo-poo the idea of the Kondratiev wave, but I think Nikolai Kondratiev may have actually been onto something. The core of his idea is that western economies follow a prosperity, recession, depression, improvement cycle… over a variable 45 to 60 year period. Some cycles are short, others are longer. When a new technology is developed and brought to market, the economy implements and grow that technological development and the economy grows along with it as people bring it to market and turn a profit off of it. Eventually, that technology matures and the ability to profit off of it declines, and the economy suffers a slump (recession) as the loss of business opportunities plays out and is no longer as profitable. This continues until some new technology comes along to drive the next wave. Applying that 45 to 60 year cycle as a sine wave, it has some interesting alignments. At the bottoming of one of those waves, there tends to be some economically based war. As an example, the Industrial revolution when played out as a sine wave, yields a conflict in the 1802 to 1816 range. This was the timeframe of the war of 1812, and with the French invasion of Russia

              Looking at the the Age of Steam and Railways, you get a conflict in the 1860 to 1874 range. (US Civil War, which despite your position on slavery, was essentially a fight between industrial and agrarian societies. You also get the Crimean War.)

              Right now, we have the age of Information Technology and Computers. Conflict time, 2002 to 2016. In this, we have what I believe are a series of attempted controlled lower scale conflicts as whoever runs the show, trying to get by with controlled shitfights rather than all out war.

              Caveat: Not an economist, not a professional theoretician, or tactician, and I didn’t stay at a Holiday Inn Express last night.

              Now… the spooky spooky part. I have never seen a plan ever come to fruition without having it screw up in some way shape or fashion.

              As for the plots, they are simply sine waves laid out over a period of time. They are for reference purposes and do not show any specific economic data. Market bubbles driven by various opportunists will boost or adversely affect how that curve actually plays out. (Tulip Bubble, Housing Bubble etc…)

            • I beg to differ, one general in all of the history of warfare actually concocted a battle plan that panned out. After executing it to a tee he left the army and disappeared into obscurity.
              Who? Norman Schwartzkopf and the first Gulf War. But, then came Bush the Second and just had to bungle it all up in a perfect shit storm.

            • If we hadn’t have been spooked by the Highway of Death, there may not have been a reason for B II to revisit the issue.

              What happened in Iraq-I was largely dependent on us still having a military designed for full on tank war with the Soviet Union. I’m pretty sure that if the opponents had actually been the real deal, it would not have been an overkill.

              Not too much earlier than that, the USAF was in the process of getting rid of the A-10 Warthog. They canceled that decommissioning when it became apparent that they would need them. the USAF has always disliked that airframe. It’s not sleek and sexy like a fighter. If I had to fly in shit like that though, I would prefer the titanium bathtub that protects the pilot and vital avionics in the warthog.

            • There was good news and bad news with the Hog (A-10). The good news was most of the attention of HHQ was focused on the faster, sexier jets. They didn’t want to get their hands dirty and as long as we didn’t screw up, they mostly left us alone – which is a real positive in the (relatively) peacetime military.

              There was good news and bad news about the titanium bathtub – the top end was open. The running joke was that a bullet couldn’t get in. But if it did get in (thru the top), it then couldn’t get out.

              Another running joke was the A-10 simulator – which the instructor would put the student into an empty dumpster and throw rocks at it to simulate combat conditions.

              There were a lot of A-10 jokes. Some of them were even funny. Cheers –

            • Well, IMO, it’s a tough airframe… but I don’t know how close it should get to a vortex. The air there is a bit turbulent. Given the way the Federal Government has be arming internal organizations, I would not be surprised that they didn’t get the ammo for the vulcan while they were at it. That would be handy in shooing away competing researchers and opinions.

              Note: The Narrator makes a mistake partway through this video by referring to the vulcan as a 30 caliber gun. It’s not 30 caliber, it’s 30 mm.

            • Lore: Anecdotally, there was one series of Mainframe that had a design error. (360 I think), it was reverse engineered so well that the knock-off carried the exact same design flaw.

            • This is well-known and not specific to one case. Mainframes were generally described as ‘plug compatible’.

              The phrase you’re looking for, for what you describe, is equally well-known and descriptive: ‘bug compatible’.

            • Just in case someone wants to take issue with my comment about the narrators use of “caliber”, in naval gun terminology, 30 caliber would be 30 times the bore for the length of the barrel… or 2.9 feet in this case. I’m pretty sure that is incorrect for the vulcan. Actual experts may care to elaborate.

            • My first code writing experience was on the college’s HP 3000 that featured two Z-80s running back to back.
              A later non mainframe I worked on had several Z-80s all being orchestrated by a separate Z-80. (It was originally designed as a phone system controller). The HP 3000 was purpose built for some mining system implementation but was repurposed by HP as their competitor in the mainframe market. That was about the only time I screwed around with Fortran.

        • I think Islander meant Russia is smaller now, so less of a problem (but that’s just my reading). 🙂

      • ‘The best lack all conviction, while the worst are full of passionate intensity’ (from The Second Coming by W.B. Yeats)

      • The real question is… did for an infinitesimally short period of time the thought “I could do that” pass through your brain. :mrgreen:

        • Till Lindemann, ex basket weaver and lead singer of Ramstein is actually certified in pyrotechnics. He had to get certified so that they could continue using pyrotechnics on stage after he burnt up some of the band’s equipment by accident (1996).

          A lot of times, you will see them with what appears to be some sort of hair gel on while performing. That is an anti flaming gel used by stunt personnel for their flame performances.

  12. Thats gonna draw a bit of ire. I hope they have beefed up their servers security. Some people will take that as an open invitation to screw with them… and those people can be quite adept at their craft.

    Russia’s upper house of Parliament has voted through a series of amendments to the law, which were proposed by president Vladimir Putin.

    From Friday, all bloggers with at least 3,000 daily readers have to register with state communications watchdog Roskomnadzor and disclose their real identity.

  13. It is like the IMO is plotting the earthquake during the workday but than after 4:00pm their time they stop. Aren’t they supposed to be plotting the earthquakes 24hours a day as they come in?

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