Bardarbunga Holuhraun Update 140910

The eruption seen from Jökulsarlón south of Vatnajökull glacier. (Martin Schultz, MBL)

The eruption seen from Jökulsarlón south of Vatnajökull glacier.  (Martin Schultz, MBL)

Amidst the truly spectacular images, the “eye candy”, currently reposted on our FaceBook account, on Twitter and on here by our readers, three possible scenarios emerge. Professor Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson, professor of geophysics at the University of Iceland´s Institute of Earth Sciences and the foremost Icelandic expert on subglacial eruptions outlines the three following scenarios:

1) The eruption at Holuhraun stops and with it the depletion of the magma reservoir of the Bardarbunga system also stops.
2) The eruption at Holuhraun continues as does the depletion with an accompanying subsidence at the Bardarbunga caldera. (As this goes on, the risk of possibility #3 increases, our note).
3) The deflation reaches a critical point where part of the roof of the Bardarbunga caldera collapses which allows water, liquid or in the form of ice, to interact directly with the magmatic main body. (This will lead to a series of very violent explosions which will only stop when either the body of water/ice or the body of magma are exhausted, our note).

“But the third scenario is that the subsidence in the floor of the caldera causes an eruption within Bardarbunga. Such an eruption could melt a large volume of glacial ice, and could end up as a powerful explosive eruption, with ashfall,” says Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson. “The meltwater would perhaps not be released immediately, due to the contour of the caldera, but eventually it would come out as a powerful flood. Obviously, we are worried about this possibility.”

Workers closing a road temporarily today (Einar Gudmann)

Workers closing a road temporarily today (Einar Gudmann)

In a series of interesting tweets, Gisli Olafsson, Emergency Response Director at NetHope, an organisation that “enables humanitarian organizations to better serve the developing world through smarter use of technology”, says that according to scientists, we have had seven eruptions so far. Three in Holuhraun, three under Dyngjujökull and one south of Bardarbunga.

According to Icelandic News Service RUV (the same story is also carried by the MBL, Morgunbladid), the director of the Civil Protection Agency in Iceland, Almannavarnír, Vidir Reynisson is “Gravely concerned” about Bardarbunga as the subsidence is thought to increase the likelihood of an eruption. From the Allmannavarnir’s perspective, the resulting glacial flood formed in such a scenario is the major concern as according to projections, it could reach Húsavik on the North coast of Iceland in as little as 5 to 6 hours.

The Northern slope of Bardarbunga. Rocky outcroppings such as these are occasionally visible in the Mila webcams and cause a lot of questions to be asked.

The Northern slope of Bardarbunga. Rocky outcroppings such as these are occasionally visible in the Mila webcams and cause a lot of questions to be asked.

If we assume that the glacier in the caldera is a perfect cylinder (it is not) 10 km in diameter, that’s approximately 63 cubic kilometres of ice which if all was melted at once (which it won’t), would result in approximately 57 cubic kilometres of water. That is a substantial amount of water which, if instantly released and evenly distributed, would cover England and Wales to a depth of about 0.45 metres or 18 inches! Note – this is a very rough estimate.

Very high concentrations of sulfur dioxide were measured at the eruption site today. Peak values were up to almost 2600 micrograms per cubic meter at Reyðarfjörður, which is by far the highest value ever recorded in Iceland. Consequently, a warning was issued for the town of Reyðarfjörður downwind, advising people to stay indoors as much as possible, especially children and the elderly. Healthy adults should not perform strenuous physical activities outdoors. The clouds of SO2 emitted by the Holohraun eruption may have been perceived by smell in Norway yesterday and have reached as far away as Northern Siberia at longitude 120 degrees East according to NASA surveillance. At times, local concentrations of SO2 are so high that they force an involuntary, temporary evacuation of the scientists from the base camp at Vadalda. Also, servicing involving refuelling (diesel) of our beloved “R2D2” Doppler radar seems to have been undertaken, much to the delight of our viewers who now report it happily blinking away in its lone vigil.

Our beloved "R2D2" Doppler radar is back in action again to the delight of our readers

Our beloved “R2D2” Doppler radar is back in action again to the delight of our readers

One aspect of the current unrest and ongoing eruption of the Bardarbunga system that is conspicuous by its absence is the implications of the current activity on the nearby Grímsvötn central volcano only 50 km to the south. This volcanic system had its latest eruption in 2011 and has since then re-inflated surprisingly rapidly. A possible previous interaction of the two systems resulted in the 1996 eruption of Gjálp, so the question is twofold. First, could the current activity at Bardarbunga have implications for Grímsvötn? Second, could activity at Grímsvötn have implications that would exacerbate the activity at Bardarbunga? At this point in time, such musings are purely hypothetical.

It is also with great pleasure we note that VC now has several members conversant in French. Bienvenu! La diversité est une très bonne chose – but please remember that the common language of this blog is English, even if the odd interchange in another language is tolerated! Finally, a request. Please try not to post animated gifs! They slow down the loading speed of VC for people accessing the site via pads or mobile connections are not really necessary. On Fridays, once the Sheepy Dalek has opened, they are welcome as Friday evenings is our Silly Hour. Thank you!

Henrik (a.k.a. Pyrite)


Only the IMO and the Allmannavarnir can issue volcanic warnings and only London VAAC can issue Flight Warnings.

We know a few wish to go there right now. But, remember to stay on the where the wind is not blowing, this is a very gassy eruption high in SO2. Even one breath of the exhaust could kill you, so please respect any and all warnings from the appropriate Icelandic authorities!


1,619 thoughts on “Bardarbunga Holuhraun Update 140910

  1. and a taste of Rosetta

    ROSINA tastes the comet’s gases


    Rosetta’s ROSINA instrument, the Rosetta Orbiter Sensor for Ion and Neutral Analysis, has detected its first cometary volatile molecules. The results were presented at the European Planetary Science Congress, EPSC, held in Portugal this week.
    ROSINA’s reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer (RTOF).

    ROSINA’s reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer (RTOF).

    The detections were made early August when Rosetta was within 200 km of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and over 500 million kilometres from the Sun – the first time that a comet’s coma has been analysed in situ this far from the Sun.

    Since then, ROSINA has been almost continuously measuring the density and the composition of the comet’s coma. It has already acquired more than 40,000 high- and low-resolution spectra with its two mass spectrometers (DFMS and RTOF).

    Overall, the density of the coma is relatively low at this early stage, far from the Sun, but should increase as activity picks up, as the comet moves closer to the Sun over the next year. The density is seen to vary during the comet ‘day’, as it rotates over a 12.4 hour period.

    As expected, the main species in the comet’s coma are found to be water, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, which are being released from below the surface layer of the nucleus, which VIRTIS has shown to be dark, porous, and probably dry.

    However, ROSINA has made the surprising observation that the ratio between these species varies quite significantly, depending on where in the coma Rosetta is. Sometimes carbon monoxide is almost as abundant as water; sometimes it’s only around 10%. In addition, ROSINA has not only detected these main species already, but many of the expected minor ones, such as ammonia, methane, and methanol.

    As Rosetta gets closer to the comet and as comet activity increases, it will soon be possible to measure the ratio of hydrogen to deuterium – an isotope of hydrogen with an added neutron – in the cometary water. This ratio is constant in Earth’s ocean water and thus can be used as a way of tracing the still unknown origin of that water: for example, was it incorporated into the Earth at the time of formation, or was it delivered from space at some later date?

    In particular, 67P/C-G is a Kuiper belt comet, and the hydrogen to deuterium ratio measured for its water will help constrain how much of Earth’s water could have come from a population of impacting Kuiper belt comets, soon after the birth of the Solar System.

    • Okay as it seems we are not going to get a good view today. It must be time for Mike Ross to get up and post some more lovely pictures after last nights taster of the view from the east. 🙂

  2. How to Find Replies to Your Comments

    Many times have we seen queries from beleaguered newbies asking: “how can I find replies to my comments?” The Catch22 in providing a simple reply to this query is that they are unable to find this reply and therefore unable to avail themselves of this assistance. Hopefully those who are still wondering will come across this Guide.

    There are at least four ways of locating replies to your comments:

    1. Conduct a laborious search through all comments until you find yours. This is time-consuming and tedious and I strongly recommend you avoid doing this for the sake of your sanity.

    2. Before posting each comment, click the email button. Then, every time you receive a response to your comment, notification will be sent to your email account. However, if you acquire the VolcanoCafé addiction in a big way, you’ll be making multiple comments a day and your email inbox will be flooded with notifications.

    3. Bookmark every comment you make by right clicking on the time stamp (located next to your user name at the top of your comment), then open it in a new tab and save it to a Bookmark file. Many commenters use this method.

    4. Discover the joys of the replies-to-comments button – the easiest and most convenient method of all! Here’s your how-to guide, in four simple graphics. The indicators, frames and writing are all in sparklypinkbarbie colours because this is the colour scheme most favoured by the noble Dragons of VC.

    DragonApproval: Superb guide as I am sure there are many who ask that very question! PS. When you post a topic like I do, every comment is treated as a personal reply, all 1,500+ of them… 🙂 / Pyrite

  3. I was wondering about “Hekla, the movie”. Usually when someone is crowdfunding, they have a stated goal and show the progress somewhere. I have seen the goal, but what about progress? I did chip in a few bucks and wonder if I am the only one 😉

    • It wasn’t so much HF gas which caused the problem, but fluoride minerals in the ash, which was ingested by livestock.

      • I seem to recall mention of 5 million tons of HF total emission from Laki, though fallout and ingestion of fluorides does seem to be the natural main concern…

        OK, Wikipedia, “Laki”:
        The outpouring of gases, including an estimated 8 million tons of hydrogen fluoride and an estimated 120 million tons of sulfur dioxide…
        An estimated 20–25% of the population died in the famine and fluoride poisoning after the fissure eruptions ceased. Around 80% of sheep, 50% of cattle and 50% of horses died because of dental and skeletal fluorosis from the 8 million tons of hydrogen fluoride that were released.

    • Is not the main concern from flouride,fallout on grass and crops and rainwater contamination?not an expert ,just thought I read that somewhere.

        • Yes some livestock died of that same thing after the relatively small 1995 Mt Ruapehu eruption in New Zealand from ash fallout on the grass.Livestock eat a lot of grass and if the grass is covered with a lot of contaminants toxic effects occur.People can wash any food gathered outside and refrain from drinking roof collected rainwater,which obviously would build up toxic concentrations easily?

  4. The drumplots are quite fuzzy this morning. I believe this may be due to the weather – can anyone who knows for sure please confirm or deny this? Thank you 🙂

    • I don’t read it supersaiyan, but I know very well what a supersaiyan is.
      As a consequence of your comment, I allow myself you might be of those who could appreciate this extract of moved pictures from youtube. It shows a geologist that is disappointed because he has lost his hammer, and helps himself with his fist to collect rock samples.

      • :’)

        Super Saiyan (超サイヤ人) is an advanced transformation assumed by extraordinarily powerful members of the Saiyan race in the Dragon Ball franchise, as well as Akira Toriyama’s later manga Nekomajin and within the Dr. Slump film Hoyoyo!! Follow the Rescued Shark. Humans in Dragon Ball Online can also use the transformation.

        The Super Saiyan form first premiered in August 1991, within chapter 317 of the Dragon Ball manga, entitled “Life or Death”. It also made its anime debut in 1991, first appearing in Dragon Ball Z episode 95, “Transformed at Last”. Within Dragon Ball Z, two further transformations, the second[11] and third[12] levels, succeed Super Saiyan, while the premier form also has three additional branch states, two that are ascensions[13] and one that is a mastering[14] of the basic Super Saiyan form. Dragon Ball GT introduced a fourth[15] form, and there are three additional forms related to the Super Saiyan state that appear exclusively in the Dragon Ball Z films: False Super Saiyan,[16] Legendary Super Saiyan,[17] and Super Saiyan God.[18]


  5. Long time lurker here, appreciate your fantastic job and learned a lot from here. One question comes to mind. If that caldera finally blows, will there be large earthquake accompanied with that. Something like M6+ or even M7 probably?

    • I think that size earthquake is very rare in Iceland, so no. M6’s and M7’s are usually tectonic rather than volcanic in origin (not an expert).

    • earthquake intensity depends on the length of the fracture. Lurking has a correlation (copper smith I think) that gives you that.
      Normally, 5 something is the max you can get from a rock fracture event in a volcanic context. However this Iceland, and the volcanoes are large…..

  6. If (or when) Bárðarbunga goes pop how far away would you be able to hear it? I guess it won’t be as loud as Krakatoa and that was audible in Perth (1900 odd miles) so would people in London (1100) be able to hear it?

    • I very much doubt it – people in London are deafened by traffic and the Heathrow flightpath! Eyeofskye might hear it if it was that big (which I sincerely hope it won’t be) as he lives on the Hebrides.

  7. This may have been discussed earlier, sorry if it has been discussed many times already!
    Looking at the IDYN drumplot there are lots of little vertical spikes, making the lines resemble barbed wire. Is this tremor, possibly caused by magma on the move or maybe running water?

    • Same signal trace, at same time on two broadband meters one in Iceland, one on the white cliffs of Dover? Closest event at NEAR that time has a 2 something in Navada, USA. Nothing on the europen system. What could it be? Suspect you will find a test signal sent to all the system meters to verify response to a synthetic quake.

      Here is the contact:

  8. Tremor is way up at VON and ASK, less so at DYN. Is it possible all those little tick marks on the DYN drum plot are glacial ice moving on Bardarbunga’s northern flank?

    • This is discussed above. Possibly wind, but not sure about DYN – might be a bit faulty and the signal shows up differently (not expert).

      • Yes, I thought about that too and saw the discussion up thread, but wind still seems like an insufficient explanation for this. That said, I’m a novice watcher, so just trying to make sense of things in relation to other things I’ve seen to date.

        • Its wind if you ask me. The low freq tremor actually indicating ground tremor is in background levels and not spiking or anything.

  9. Updated information from the IMO

    12 September 2014 11:30 – from the Scientific Advisory Board

    Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection. Representative from The Environment Agency of Iceland and the Chief Epidemiologist and the Directorate of Health, were also present.

    Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:

    The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity. Lava flows at similar rates as yesterday. The lava is flowing towards East into Jökulsá á Fjöllum, slightly narrowing its path. No explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava.
    Scientists flying over the Bárðarbunga area yesterday reported no new changes in the surface.

    Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:

    Forecasts indicate that high concentrations of sulphuric gases may be expected in the northern part of the Eastern fjords, Fljótsdalur, Hérað, Jökuldalur, and Vopnafjörður. Forecast indicates that concentration may become highest in Hérað later today. High concentrations could occur in other areas as well. The Environment Agency will set up new monitoring stations in Akureyri and in South Iceland today. Geographical conditions must be considered when estimating air quality. People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close the windows and turn off air conditioning. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.
    Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites.

    Air quality at the eruption site:

    Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably. Scientists in the field carry gas meters for their security.

    Earthquake activity in the caldera of Bárðarbunga remains similar to that of the last days. Epicenters are distributed along the northern and south-eastern caldera fault. Earthquake activity at the dyke tip has decreased. More than 50 events have been detected since midnight. Low frequency tremor has decreased.
    GPS observations:

    There are minor crustal movements around the dyke supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke slightly exceeds the flow of magma erupted to the surface.
    Considering the time period since the beginning of the eruption slow movements towards the Bárðarbunga caldera indicate continuing subsidence of the caldera.

    A new GPS station was installed on top of Bárðarbunga yesterday to monitor the subsidence of the caldera floor.

    Three scenarios are considered most likely:

    ** Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.

    ** Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.

    ** Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.

    Other scenarios cannot be excluded.

  10. About those spikes at DYN. It is a similar (if not the same) thing as was observed on the Lagu-Hvolar (HVO) station south of Katla. The station had some eletricity/circuit problems that were causing it. I am pretty sure the DYN is having the same problem. It did took quite a beating in the past few weeks.

        • Well first you check the weather conditions. That is obvious on its own. Then you can check the infrasound tremor plots, where the higher frequency tells the tale, and as for the drum plots, that’s a bit trickier, but it can be noticed if there is an initial break (for tremor), or a slower softer onset (wind), amplitude oscillations with smoother on/offset (wind) oscillations,… Tremor is also more “saw” like, while wind is more smooth, etc,… this is just some basic stuff from the head. I could be wrong tho.

    • Hm, and for how long should it stop moving until we decide that the whole system stabilized, and then again how long is “for now”?
      Whoever now claims whatever as an answer to your question, I personally will not rule out anything if it’s not days or even weeks that confirm a trend.

        • Yes, watch the trends.
          I summarize it up the quite rudimentary way. The MAR has got active (rifting) around Bardarbunga, and there’s even a chance for the caldera to collapse. All connected scenarii are possible. We’re on the way; everything can, nothing must happen. For the moment we carry on. Towards more in my opinion. As long as there is no new trend of calming down, what would need several days or weeks to be seen as such. A biggy like the MAR/Bardarbunga is like a big boat. It has inertia. A day is no trend. Might be a start of a trend, but is no trend. We won’t see a caldera eruption until tomorrow, and we won’t see it all of a sudden stop until sunday…
          My preferred scenario is total havoc and new world order. But I wouldn’t bet on it.

          • If observers are assuming that “calming down” so to speak is not part of a process that does not end calmly ,that thinking could be flawed?☺

      • To do my avatar some honour, I want to point out that a slowing down of caldera subsidience merely means that something is blocked and stopping further collapse for now – followed by even larger earthquakes than we have seen so far and a sudden dramatic collapse followed by a major eruption.

        Am I doing it right? 😉

        • There probably is no right or wrong, but your writing is pretty hot. At least much hotter than “oh I’m 22 and a rich prick makes me discover I have some interesting buttons” 50 shades of grey… Girls, if that impressed you, then you should really once try a swiss man doing you the Double Crème de la Gruyère Bündner Nusstorte Taillaule and Pizokel loop. After that go on and call yourselves women. 🙂

  11. De-lurks

    Been pondering all the information we have received from IMO. Going back to what they revealed about there being 7 very minor eruptions in and around Bard area, out with the fissure eruption. Could we not just be seeing a continuation of one of these smaller “hidden” events under the ice.. on the drum plots. They are obviously small enough in nature and will have a signal despite no immediate visual sign of activity.

    Or maybe I think too much and am needing to cork my Friday wine and chill out !!!


    • Sorry… meant to say that this is relevant to various drum plot anomalies we are seeing not just todays which is weather related…..

  12. Hey 🙂
    Just one question!
    Looking at webcam on youtube, of Bárðarbunga (mila-cam 2) and everything is shakeing (Sorry, my english not very good) – is it earthquakes or wind?

  13. That nice plume picture got me thinking about SO2 again, so I did a quick “physicists estimate” of where we are with emissions:

    wind speeds are around 10 m/sec, and the plume is about 5 km tall (there was data on that the other day).
    Looking at it, it is quite narrow, so in round numbers we can call it 20 km wide and 100 km long.

    Then the flow rate in the plume is just 10*5,000*20,000 = 10^9 m^3/sec
    If we estimate SO2 concentrations as about 100 μg/m^3 we get an SO2 flow rate of 10^5 gm/sec.
    Or about 10^10 gm/day == 10,000 tons/day of SO2

    Consistent with the estimate from the early days of the eruption, consistent with plume concentrations measured on the east coast (allowing for local geography and heterogenous plumes) and implying
    3-4 Megatons SO2 per year.

    To be comparable to Laki the eruption would need to be 10-30 times more intense, on average, and a bit more gas rich.
    ‘course it is early days yet.

    It is going to get interesting once it gets cold and we don’t have rain efficiently washing the SO2 out of the troposphere – if we’re still erupting by Nov or Dec at this level, the SO2 bands are going to be wrapping around the 45-70 degree north latitude bands and starting to build in concentrations.
    If the eruption is still going by spring, then it might impact climate on continental or hemispheric scales; it would then certainly impact vegetation health in northern Europe in the spring.

  14. Just a quick thought on this:,64.69,1913

    This is model data only. The initial data is based on real-time observation, but forecasts are modelled. The data comes from the NCEP GFS model. It has a 3-hour step, and a new run every six hours. Now the thing about models, is that they sometimes have a funny impression how the terrain looks like, which limits their accuracy among other things. That depends on the horizontal and also vertical resolution of the model. The higher the resolution, the better impression the model has about the terrain. GFS has a 0.5 degree grid spacing. That is not particularly good for local forecasts. But in this case, it is well enough to get the general idea of the wind, and more appropriate for larger scales.

    So for fun, I have plotted how the GFS model sees the terrain in Iceland, from its binary data files. Lets just say that it pretty much sees it as one big stratovolcano. 😀 The highest peak is Grimsvotn in Vatnajökull at 1680m. And that is pretty much what a model with this resolution is capable to determine in this scale. 🙂

    This is the actual terrain as the model sees it.

    And here I manually added the actual coastlines, for comparison.

    Fun stuff, I tell you. 🙂

  15. these last 3 little EQ 1.7/1.7/1.8 on caldera BB bother me…. between 0.1 and 1.2 km depth… n the further quiet surroundings …. is the ice breaking there a bit?

  16. As master of the Order of the Orange Overalls, who has just escaped the maze of the dark mines of the Sheepy Dalek’s lair, could some kind Dragon please advise this old Mind Bender as to which is the best/better web cam/s for Holuhraun and it’s surroundings?
    I’ve piles of catching-up and this would just be a teensy-weensy bit of ‘elp!!

        • @ Talla

          Ow be ee getting on!!
          Appn I be wun ov they mun raakers, how’m ee gittin orn m’ gal; hint bin ’bout fer woile, got wun ‘ell v load r stuff t’ rid thro’!
          Ad lots a trubl this larst umpteen munts, laptops goin caput, lost all me links to everythin, all me email addresses cos sum b&^%$£ hacked me!
          Jus bin digging tatters – r sum v em!!

          • OOOOoooarrrrrr! I thot it was eee! Y’um bin mist ‘roun ‘ere sumat chronic. I reckon Diana n’ Frances’ll be ‘appy t’ see eee too!
            I’d better speak proper or the poor people relying on Google Translate will be ill! There’s thousands of pages to read – basically a grabboid or baby dragon has woken up and is growling about underground and we’re watching it. There – saved your eyes thousands of hours of strain. I’m off home now (I’m at work) and I’ll see ‘ee in an hour for a pint at the Sheepy Dalek Bar!
            That Barry Obarmer wus down ‘ere las week at t’ ‘enge – ‘e didn’ now wot t’ mak of it either. ‘E ‘ad a bludy big plane t’ ride about in tho!

            • If you 1,2,n are down by t’enge you’re on the next side round of the big blank area I mentioned a few days ago as somewhere to put a small volcano. Down here in Wiltshire we need something exciting that doesn’t charge arms and legs for admission. Could you write to the council and suggest putting the caldera in Imber like I did? If it’s clear later I might have to head down your way to get somewhere dark to look for the aurora.

            • Frances, definitely be ‘appy t’ see eee’, welcome back an’ keep up the zider drinkin’.
              Sorry to hear ’bout the computer. I bet eee were ‘acked orf a bit. I wudda bin.

    • Oh man, that’s so nice.
      Sorry I never answered your last email. Gave it a start once, but was in a mood that gave it kind of a senseless weight.
      Master of the orange overalls, it’s a pleasure to read you.

    • Ohh! I remember the orange overalls well! Didn’t we at one point suggest a VC calendar with the orange overalls as Mr December or was it Mr September? 😀 😀
      Pardon me if I got this totally wrong……..

  17. Just managed to get some time before evening meal preps. Evening all and a very happy weekend to all. See you all in the bar later 🙂

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