Short Update 140912 and a new riddling session.

Whenever a new post is needed in a very short time and it is not supposed to last for very long till it will be replaced, I try to sum up what happened the last days and what our commenters had been bringing to the blog. And it would be a shame to miss those images and links.

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All rights reserved Mike Ross @eruptionchaser

Mike Ross graced us with a really amazing image. I saved it to this post so it is not lost amoung thousands of comments. All rights belong to Mike of course. And he also presented us an image of our beloved Mila Cams:
Mike Ross (@eruptionchaser) September 12, 2014 at 00:58
You’ve all been watching the Mila cams… here’s what the view looks like from the other side 🙂
BxSylTHCQAAEOBI
(Cameras are on the pole to the right)

Axel Þór digger out how it looked like art february Credits Mila ( Mila Facebook site)

Axel Þór digger out how it looked like art february Credits Mila ( Mila Facebook site)

Weemad found a video shot with a drone on Facebook. Overflight over the fissure eruption.

Sciencia Obsololeta digger out an extended view of plume on https://earthdata.nasa.gov/labs/worldview/

And the Stone tablet. The last Update presented by IMO:
12 September 2014 11:30 – from the Scientific Advisory Board

Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection. Representative from The Environment Agency of Iceland and the Chief Epidemiologist and the Directorate of Health, were also present.

Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:
The eruptive activity at Holuhraun continues at similar intensity. Lava flows at similar rates as yesterday. The lava is flowing towards East into Jökulsá á Fjöllum, slightly narrowing its path. No explosive activity due to the lava and river water interaction has been observed, but steam rises from the lava.

Scientists flying over the Bárðarbunga area yesterday reported no new changes in the surface.

Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:
Forecasts indicate that high concentrations of sulphuric gases may be expected in the northern part of the Eastern fjords, Fljótsdalur, Hérað, Jökuldalur, and Vopnafjörður. Forecast indicates that concentration may become highest in Hérað later today. High concentrations could occur in other areas as well. The Environment Agency will set up new monitoring stations in Akureyri and in South Iceland today. Geographical conditions must be considered when estimating air quality. People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close the windows and turn off air conditioning. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage loftgaedi.is. The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.
Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites.

Air quality at the eruption site:
Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably. Scientists in the field carry gas meters for their security.

Earthquake activity in the caldera of Bárðarbunga remains similar to that of the last days. Epicenters are distributed along the northern and south-eastern caldera fault. Earthquake activity at the dyke tip has decreased. More than 50 events have been detected since midnight. Low frequency tremor has decreased.

GPS observations:
There are minor crustal movements around the dyke supporting the assumption that the amount of magma flowing into the dyke slightly exceeds the flow of magma erupted to the surface.
Considering the time period since the beginning of the eruption slow movements towards the Bárðarbunga caldera indicate continuing subsidence of the caldera.
A new GPS station was installed on top of Bárðarbunga yesterday to monitor the subsidence of the caldera floor.
Three scenarios are considered most likely:

  • Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.
  • Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.
  • Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.
    Other scenarios cannot be excluded.

From the Icelandic Met Office:

The Aviation Colour Code for Bárðarbunga remains at ‘orange’ and the code for Askja is ‘green’.

Credit Nasa

Credit Nasa

takk108 found an article with 11 stunningly beautiful images: http://mashable.com/2014/09/11/iceland-bardabunga-volcano-eruption-photos/#:eyJzIjoiZiIsImkiOiJfY2Qxbzc1MnB4bG1uc213aCJ9
And the last link:
Bringing this over from end of last post as it’s just too nice (and ‘merci’ to Shérine for finding it)

Another set of great photos here. Nice to see another view (from the glacier !!)

(click on the pic to launch the link, and scroll through for some more)
There is a new item up in the menu RIDDLES https://volcanocafe.wordpress.com/riddles/
Explanation for Newbies to the blog:

On Volcanocafe most fridays we open the bar and have a set of riddles.  Different dragons put up riddles over the years. At the moment our Riddle Master is Matt but he will be assisted by Kilgharra. Normally 2 points are handed out when a riddle was solved straight away and 1 point when a clue was necessary. When a riddle was solved the Riddle Master or another dragon on riddling duty will shout DING!

As long as the blog sees a LOT of traffic now, it is hard for the Riddle Master to find correct answers with thousand or more comments, so we decided to try something new. This page is shown in the menu. We ask our competitor to post their answers right below this page. Answers in the main thread will not count even if they are correct. ( Answers on a page do not show up in recent comments.)

The queen of riddling has been Sissel and you Newbies will have a hard time beating her, but you will be amazed where your search on the net will lead you to. One finds lots of interesting or funny things while trying to active a black belt in Google Fu. The prize are just point but don´t forget the honor and the fun. So join in. Let this weeks fun begin.

One “old” riddle still remains unsolved: old #1 which already has a clue appended.!

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This week you may find four volcanoes and one geologic feature in Matt´s riddles. As always, 2 points are awarded for each answer, 1 point after a clue is given. Good luck! 

1) The image.clue1

2) I played a role in the American civil rights movement, but nobody knew about me at the time!

3) Important in both world war 1 and world war 2, it destroyed its namesake twice during the 20th century.

4) The first visitors to this uninhabited island captured the president in the war of 1812.”

5) “The fake base kept the enemy from invading… you might say it was this:

——————————————————————————————————————————————–

That week the answers to Matt´s riddles: there are three volcanoes, one volcanic feature, and one volcanic term. 2 points are awarded for each correct answer, 1 point after a clue was given.

#1 Riddle: Hot rocks + image
Clue It has everything to do with domes, ash, and pyroclastic flows, but nothing to do with cars.

#2 In the country where coffee got one of its names, this was the only one to erupt during the 20th century. 2 points Espadrille Harras of Dhamar in Yemen. With Saana’s harbour Mocha as the name for coffee

#3 The volcano came between Margaritaville and Pyroclasticville. 2 points inannamoon667 Soufriere Hills The volcano came between Margaritaville and Pyroclasticville.

#4 Agave and communists? It’s pretty cool! Clue: Clue: It took a nuclear reactor to find it. 1 point LDP Gakkel Ridge, surveyed by. Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition.

#5 This volcano of water once destroyed a capital. 2 points Sissel Volcan del Aqua
pop Score board

pop Score board: Updated Sept 8th

28 Sissel
8 Inannamoon667
7 KarenZ
7 Bobbi
5 Dinojura44
4 Dorkviking
2  Espadrille
2 Frances
2 inannamoon667
2 Irpsit
1 RenatoRio
1 Talla
1 LPD

Spica

Storing dfms brilliant plot:

this is the summary from august 16th to today about twelve.
mag is over 2.5 to get a cleaner view. I have set the upper latitude higher to get the activity around Herdubreid. Color of dots os according to date (see colorbar left). Terrain is on the colorbar right. Size of dot is proportional to magnitude (see blue scale on one side). A big Tak to IMO for the data quality. and to NOAAfor the terrain.ook at the title bar for more information (date, hour)

First view is from the north west, then the top, and 2 rotating view with all events.

Made on Gnu Octave.
dfm

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862 thoughts on “Short Update 140912 and a new riddling session.

        • Thank you for your kind words, Mopshell 🙂 yeah, I have been up all night, can’t risk missing anything, can I? Plus the company here is great 🙂 keeps you up ..I wrote the comment you are replying to 3 hours ago and I still haven’t dragged myself to bed ..hehe ..says more than many words ..But now I am definitely logging off ..good morning to all of you ..hope you will have a eventful morning watching Bárðarbunga and its minions

    • the sensitivity of the image sensors of Mila cameras’ might not be good enough to catch but the strongest auroras, so it’s not surprising not to have seen those. Normally you’d need at least some 2 second exposures to get them on camera (though easily visible by naked eye). Only rarely they outshine stars and this is when they might show up. If it’s any consolation, tried to see those here in Finland last night but couldn’t see them in the city light pollution. Additionally I was probably too south to see them. And they said last night they were weak:see f.e. http://www.taivaanvahti.fi/observations/show/30105

  1. DeepThought asked for a zoom on the bardarbunga caldera. There is an advantage in doing your own plots 😀
    Here it is

    note that there seems to be nearly 2 parallel sets of quakes. Each on one side of the volcano.
    First view is from the north west

    Other parameters as usual (date according to dot color, size proportional to magnitude)

    • Thank you! It is amazing! Quite interesting to see the planes, two planes of the earthquakes… If this was a block, and the two sides have earthquakes, and the other two not, would it mean that two sides are sliding freely and two sides move with earthquakes? These seem to be at an angle to the presumed (in lack of “accurate” geological map) boundaries of the MAR…. if they extend through the volcano under the cover of ice…. well a thought at least…

      • yes there are some parts sliding easily and the opposite parts are not.e careful there are some spatial distortion due to the plotting software.

    • Thanks for your plots dfm …….they are of great assistance regarding Bardarbunga caldera future actions
      ……its not looking good 😦 Icelanders to the west side (180 degrees) of Bardarbunga should be/get prepared……
      I am no expert …..just dont be complacent Icelanders —- authorities will always hold back “bad” info until its certain, as they dont want unnessasary panic )

      I also managed to get a great free 3D/4D addon for excel at
      http://www.@@@doka@@@.ch/Excel3Dscatterplot.htm ( remove @@@ inurl)
      Create 3D scatterplots (X/Y/Z-plots) in MSExcel with this workbook.

      • Icelandic IMO does a top notch job.

        Excel is for the bean counters. It’s Ok to do some basic plots, but it will not have some easy 3D features. for instance I use a Matlab like “griddata” function which gives me an 3D interpolation surface. That’s what gives you the terrain. Last time I tried an add on like that Iost the whole Windows because it wrote over a important dll.

  2. At last we seem to have a reliable internet connection again. So a quick rumination with Coffee #1.
    Something happened this week that really made me stop and think carefully about my “on Line” life and real life. My ruminations are usually just little windows into something that has happened to me, maybe a rant, maybe a deepish pondering. I don’t know why I publish them on here. It’s not for glory or to be important, I think it’s like sharing life experiences with friends.
    For I have found friends here. I may never see them but they are real people, with hopes and fears like myself.
    My silly bantering and more thoughtful comments has evidently affected someone ,far more than I ever expected. In fact I really didn’t think my comments affected anyone at all.
    But they have.
    Someone has shown me a huge kindness anonymously. Simply because I made that person smile.
    To that anonymous person I would like to express my thanks and please to accept a very warm virtual hug. Your kindness is so appreciated.
    So a message to everyone , especially to our new members…… Feel The Love….. Volcanocafe is a very special place. It is a place for scientific discussion . A place for discovery of new information and learning. Most importantly it is a place of tolerance and friendship. There may be the odd dispute but us Dragons have noticed , despite the huge footfall and diversity of our commenters , disagreements have been few and readily sorted between commenters without any Dragon Whacking.
    The breathing of fire and brimstone is solely left to the Volcanoes and watched on webcam.
    ….and to conclude…….( I live 22 kms from Chorlton Cum Hardy ……make of this as you will)

    • I have come to love every one of your posts, Diana, and I have been lurking here for a very long time. “Most importantly it is a place of tolerance and friendship”. This is so true 🙂 Volcanocafe is such a warm and a friendly place, a shelter from the storm of our daily lives. You are such a beautiful and a wonderful person 🙂

    • Hi Diana, glad to read that you have reliable internet again. I so enjoy your musings. A breath of daily life, so appreciated.
      I am a lurker here from the days Volcanocafe opened and just love it.
      Take care.
      Anne

      • Hi Diana … how lovely to read your posts. I’ve been away (but lurking) during the recent happenings and now trying to catch up on 100’s or even 1000’s of messages and fantastic photos … what a wonderful, amazing world we live in! Sorry that my origin isn’t as exotic as Diana’s, I’m just an ex-pat but originally an “Essex girl” … Diana and any other English people will understand the origins of this saying!
        Thank you everyone for the information you contribute to Volcanocafé, for your friendliness and sense of humour. I’m sure that we all agree it’s a real family wanting to learn and share together.

    • Hi, Diana! Lovely post! Hope You can find this. So many posts now. Yes it’s a lovely board and the friendships are real, just the coffees are virtual. Sending You the Best!motsfo

      • Thank you all 🙂 You are making me com over all unnecessary 😳 Sending return bests of everything 🙂
        My origins exotic? Errrm! Somerset Born, lived in South Devon, Birmingham, Jamaica than back to Industrial Lancashire….I suppose it all depends on perspective 😀

    • IMO have it provisionally as 2.6 but that’s bound to change when it’s reviewed. After all, they haven’t gotten around to even listing the first three ‘quakes after midnight on the IDYN drumplot – must be shift-change time. 🙂

      07:58:15 _ _ 64.673 –17.404 _ _ 1.1 km _ _ 2.6 _ _ 90.1 _ _ 6.9 km ENE of Bárðarbunga

      • Hi Mopshell, I read earlier (posted in the night I think) someone thanking you for your contributions here. I also would like to say how much I agreed with their comments. Since most of the older (as regards time on this blog) commentators seem to be otherwise engaged elsewhere most of the time it is really great to have your sensible input. Many thanks.

          • I am overwhelmed. I really didn’t think my comments made any kind of difference, just the odd raindrop in a flood of intelligent and insightful observations from the experienced, the professional and the expert (albeit unofficially expert but expert all the same). I have mountains of admiration, respect and, most of all, genuine affection for so many here. It’s a wonderful, magical place to be! I’m not sure that all the excitement of volcano-watching is quite what my doctor has in mind when she orders “rest” but we don’t have to tell her about all the thrilling bits. 😀

            • Since you arrived here Mopshell you’ve been a regular and really interesting contributor! I enjoy reading your posts. I wish I could contribute more but life is chaos with two teenagers and a mad cat, and my poor wife has terrible back ache right now so needs plenty of support!

            • I am very lucky, Clive. Though my body insists that I’m an old lady, my mind has never accepted the concept and remains somewhere between the ages of 16 and 30 (the latter during my ‘practical and sensible’ hours). I’m sure no-one has ever been so thrilled to have a heart condition as I am right now! This ailment means I’m not allowed to drive or work and I’m under strict medical instructions to rest which provides me with an unprecedented opportunity to haunt VolcanoCafé every waking hour! 😀 I’m not sure my doctors quite had the excitement of volcano-watching in mind when ordering me to rest but I don’t think they need to know. 🙂

              Ah, two teenagers – what a difference those years make! I do adore teenagers though and taught them for many years. They keep you on your toes! A mad cat is a fun cat; a cat which is enjoying life unreservedly. 🙂

              I am very sorry to hear of your wife’s back pain and commend you for understanding that she needs lots of support.

              Though life is chaotic for you right now, it won’t always be so. It balances out down the track. Meanwhile, it’s really good to have you here when you can find the time. 🙂

            • Mopsey, as I said earlier, you made an impact on me. You were one of the reasons I stayed. At first I thought this forum was only for brainiacs (lol)…but I slowly realized that this was a place filled with humorous, respectful, AND intelligent people. I had been a little down as I am recovering from cancer (in remission yay! But still dealing with stuff) So the fact that I love volcanos and nature combined with the wonderful atmosphere here gave me a welcome distraction from all that ( and a much needed laugh!)I love this forum and look forward to it each day! 🙂 So yes, you do make a difference, as well as others here… *Carl*. Thanks to everyone here for making his such a great place!

            • You know, I think this place should be recommended by doctors to those of us who are recovering/resting. Not only is it a brilliant distraction but also a positive tonic! 😀

              I’m so glad to hear you’re in remission. This is the perfect place to keep your spirits up while you recover your strength – VC and Pratchett books! Here’s a list of the first three: “Guards Guards”, “Men At Arms” and “Feet of Clay”. I’m guessing you’ll get through them fairly quickly so let me know when you’re ready for the next three. 🙂

            • I sure will! I hope to get started by the middle of next week…thanks so much for letting me know about it! These types of things are better than any medicine! 🙂

        • Oh Frances, if you just knew me in real life, you’d know I’m just another crazy old lady! 😀 But I do love taking the “night-shift” and helping out where I can. It’s a privilege to be here among so many I admire and adore. There’s also a handful of you who have become particularly special to me. ❤

          • I agree – Mopshells answers, way of being patient and educating and her updater/ comments etc – are really a candy to me – I appriciate and thank you SO very much for all you are and do here Mopshell – also the personal notes and comments 😀

            As a mother of 5 with 2 adult and 8 small (7 newly born yesterday) Maincoon cats – Im quite busy most of my days – but VC I have to follow and read up to – at least 2-3 times a day.

            PS: Im naming our new kittens after this crisis – The 4 with red coulor: Bardarbunga – Askja – Magma and Lava – and the rest who are black got named Mopshell, Carl and Jon :3

        • I also agree! This blog is so welcoming and friendly, as well as informative, and you are a big part of making it that way, Mopshell!

    • In my opinion it is worrying how frequently these big quakes at Bard are occurring now. Add to these the amount of 3+ occurring far more frequently also in the same area then the caldera lid must be under tremendous strain now.

  3. Now i have a funny and probably a dumb question. If i would be able to stand on top of the Bárðarbunga glacier over the crater, would i be able to hear any noises or rumbling noises from the +4 earthquakes?

    • I would be very surprised if you didn’t Tom. Especially the 5+ however I am not sure how the ice would dampen any sound or movement so can’t say categorically yes.

        • Haha, I thought when the question was raised that it wasn’t a dumb question as Tom was worried it might be, but if anyone was dumb enough to do it it might be the last thing they felt. I would certainly have an accident if that happened to me!

        • Those sort of guys are the real heroes in this sort of scenario. You wouldn’t see me within a long, long and safe distance from that caldera.

            • Ah sounds good Mopshell. By the way, what part of Australia do you live in? My brother moved around a lot when he went there but has now settled in Tasmania and my hubby was born in Mildura hospital and lived in a tiny place called Qaumbatuk (and that is probably way out on the spelling). He came back to UK with parents when he was 2 though so he doesn’t remember a thing.

            • I was born and raised in Tasmania (beautiful place!) but currently live in Townsville in far north Queensland, in the tropics. What a difference in climate! 😮 I do like it here though. 🙂

              For three years in the 80s, I lived in London and Guildford in Surrey. I was there when one of the 80’s hurricanes hit – wow! But now I live in a cyclone zone and happily lived through Cyclone Yasi which was a massive thing – took almost 24 hours to pass over! No volcanoes of course but finding the Iceland experience fascinating! (and addictive!) 😀

    • I think you would hear a 5+, not sure about smaller when out in the open. Usually the noise comes from buildings creaking and groaning, or people yelling!

    • After having been standing on top of Vatnajökull I can fill in another tidbit since there obviously was no M5 while I was there.
      The glacier is in and of itself really noisy due to the ice moving. You have sharp pangs, grumbles, creakings and whatnots going on all the time. At least the part I was at moving from the Háagöngur(V) and Geirvörtur volcanoes.

      Why the V? Well, there are two Háagöngur volcanoes in Iceland. One dormant out on the Vonarskard fissure swarm, and on that is on the Thordharhyrna fissure swarm under Vatnajökull. The last one is little known, but had at least one large (VEI-5) eruption during the last 1000 years and probably erupted a smaller VEI-2 during Laki. I saw a chunk sticking out of the glacier from the large eruption 8km away that was the size of a bus.

    • I remember when I livd in Greece. I was in bed one morning, trying to persuade myself to get up an shower. Suddenly, there was a loud rumbling noise, my first thought, that the worskhop underneath was raising the metal shutter again. Then the fan in the room started rocking, which I thought was rather odd, then the bed started rocking. I decided I wouldn’t get in the shower, as I might fall over. It was quite a while before I considered getting out of bed again, then another hit, followed by another a few minutes later. They all made the same loud rumbling noise. Apparently there was a fourth, but I didn’t feel it. I didn’t get an accurate report of teh strength, but when I did a search some time later, I found a quake of 4.3, but i don’t know if it was the same one.
      A few months ago, I was at work, here in the UK and heard the same rumbling sound, followed by rocking. That was a quake in Lundy, an island off the Devon coast, proably 40 miles away and was measured at 4.3.
      So in short, yes you would hear something.

    • Yes todays date too. I think the seismologists are getting a little more nervous about this as each day goes by. I really love their calm but not head-in-the-sand attitude at least as regards their media releases.

      • My guess is they are releasing information on a delayed basis of a few days,unless its information like gas levels for public safety,there are information gaps,as time goes by they seem to be more concerned but giving less elaboration on why this concern ,unless you happen to be the Prime minister,just my thoughts and probably a misconception on my part?

        • IMO does not hide things. But, they make sure they are right before saying anything.
          And they are Icelandic so a particular scarcity of word usage is to be expected.

          IMO does Stonetablets. Ie, short and to the point. They can be anything from a sentence long to a quarter of a page. And it is up to us to interpret them 😉
          INGV on the other hand does 1 to 2 pages. In Spain a commity of 5 different authorities wrote 18 pages that contained no relevant information at all. More pages is not more informative.

          IMO is the best. But their job is to save lives, not tickle our curiosity.

          • I was not criticizing their approach,on the contrary it is probably prudent,but it does indicate a fair degree of uncertainty as to the current course of events and the potential ramifications?☺

          • Yeah, I seem to recall that the classic Icelandic way of communication is getting straight to the point:
            Character X then traveled across Iceland, opened the door and
            “með sinn atgeir veitti honum bana”. Then he traveled back home. 🙂

        • LOL Mopshell, do you realise you just told him to go away? 😉 😀
          I quite agree with your concern though as if he is an Icelander and has been up all night he certainly does need some sleep.
          I find one good thing about having white hair is that it means that when I get bossy people just roll their eyes, sigh, and think “crazy woman” but don’t growl at me. 😉

          • He was saying two hours ago that he needed to go to bed and I was surprised to find he was still awake! I know what it is like though – I fight to stay awake sometimes when I should give in to sleep. 🙂 I think I need a new photo thjough… one taken before I put another colour through my hair so there’s lots of ‘old lady grey’ still showing! 😉

    • What a riveting read this report is! I goggled at the first paragraph then, with a sense of awe and wonder, tackled the next. I was doing very well with the sentence “A few samples have been cut and polished for inspection” until it plunged into the great unknown with “photography and chemical analyses with a scanning electron microscope equipped with a backscatter-electron detector and an energy-dispersive spectrometer”. That such a thing exists is mind-boggling! But I’ll never again have any need to worry myself about what the acronym SEM-EDS stands for. 🙂

      It continued on in a similar vein with such memorable phrases as “Immiscible sulfides globules” and “the most abundant cation”. My only regret is that I do not foresee any opportunity for ever including these glorious phrases in my own writing but they are wondrous to read. Needless to say, I have bookmarked this invaluable article. 😀

      • I was just curious about the Mg numbers and wanted to know if they were going to report any rare earth elements – sulphide globules don’t sound very apetizing though

      • Wish that sort of kit had been around when I was a geology student. Chemical analysis of lava samples then meant you had to dissolve the sample in hydrofluoric acid, which is NASTY stuff to be around. Other interesting thing was the presence of sulphide globules…now, I remember looking at a fair number of microscope slides of basalts back then and never saw sulphide inclusions; confirms what we.ve seen on the cams, this is as the Dragons say, a very ‘gassy’ eruption, lot of sulphur

  4. Just thought that I would throw in a small piece of info, a comment on Jardvis’s FB page states that the main crater “Baugur” has now reached the height of at least 70 meters, that is one possible explination to how little we now see the fountains in it, half of them hidden behind the walls of the crater.

  5. Wonder if it flew through the toxic smog and was having breathing difficulty (not ash related)?

    Vehicle Incident in Ireland on Saturday, 13 September, 2014 at 04:03 (04:03 AM) UTC.
    A plane made an emergency landing at Shannon Airport today after suffering engine failure over the Atlantic. Eight people were on board the Canadair Challenger 604 jet, which was over 100 kilometres off the west coast of Ireland, when an emergency was declared. The jet had been flying from Canada to Luton Airport in the UK. The crew contacted air traffic controllers and landed safely in Shannon airport. Shannon Airport’s emergency plan was implemented and the HSE, local authority fire services and gardaí were alerted. The plane landed safely just before 5pm this evening.

    • I doubt it – they were coming from Canada and were still over 100km west of Iceland’s west coast, so should not have even encountered anything from the eription.

      • Aircraft, at that point of a longhau towards the end l, fly well above the altitude the dispersed plume of Barda would ever reach, like 40.000 ft. So no, the eruption is not involved here. Besides, 100 km west of Ireland suggests that the flightpath was nowhere near Iceland. For better understanding, here is screenshot of a flightpath from yesterday, YVR-LHR, almost same route as the Challenger in question YYJ-LTN, at 11.16Z

  6. These are photos on facebook (link from the RUV site, (current) top volcano article.
    It says they were taken yesterday (12th September). unfortunately they are not individually labelled, but the last one is particularly interesting – lava-river interaction from a very unusual angle.

  7. Level in east Iceland peaked yesterday at 4000µg/m³ (that’s twice as the worst smog in London or Beijin) then dropped to 200µg/m³ (average level for a large polluted city). At 4000µg/m³ everyone experiences breathing problems.

  8. Do you know how to increase air pressure inside a house so it does not let SO2 leak inside indoors?

    Also: does anyone suggest some substance that I could blown into the air with a fan or a vaporizer so that reacts with the SO2 or H2SO4 and neutralizes its acidid effects? Of course I know of masks with making soda, but I want something to create an alkaline air in the household air.

    • From what I remember of chemistry as far as using a vaporiser you need enough concentration of both gases for a reaction to take place e.g. a combustible mix for a gas explosion. I would think some kind of special air purifier would be the most likely. I have no idea whether such a thing is available. This link shows the technology exists but getting a device for use in the home is another matter. http://www.netl.doe.gov/File%20Library/Research/Coal/major%20demonstrations/cctdp/Round3/gsa1.pdf

    • Here is a simple solution. Put up a couple of PC fans in your house, place a damp cloth on the other side of the fan. As the air is pushed through the SO2 turn into H2SO4 as it interact with the H2O. Use water laced with bicarbonate and you have your homegrown air purifier. Each one of them would clean out 5 cubic meters of air per hour. So two of them should keep your indoor air nice and breathable whatever happens.

      • That’s just the principle I am thinking of.
        I am setting fans with towels soaked in sodium bicarbonate, and insulating windows with tape and “painted” with sodium bicarbonate”,

        They actually use the bicardonate soaked towels in Hawaii.

        But is there another chemical that would be more powerful than sodium bicarbonate, in case the amount of SO2 is too much? I thought of blowing water with some small concentration of lye into it, or some ammonia compound (quite diluted of course). But ammonia sulfate is also irritant, but less than sulphuric acid.

        Which bases/alkaline compounds are readily vapourized in addition to ammonia?
        Guess than ammonia can be a nice choice if SO2 levels get too much.

        • Stay away from more potent chemicals. The reaction could be rather gruesome to your health.
          And I would stay away from insulating the house to much. Stale air is more likely to kill you than SO2 if you have a well built house.

          You are mentioning that you are pondering to use more toxic chemicals than the SO2 itself. Air scrubber with bicarbonate is safe and quite enough to keep you alive and well.

          Irpsit, breathe… Just breathe and relax. 😉

          • Eheh. Thanks.

            I know they are dangerous chemicals. I just thought of the idea, but I understand it is more risky than the SO2 itself. I prefer to breath car exhaust than an ammonia cleaner liquid. I will stick with the baking soda.

            ANyways I doubt that by keeping the windows locked, that an outdoors concentration of 2ppm would leak indoors that fast. So by the time it is increasing quickly indoors, the wind probably has changed direction.

            • Depending on the type of construction used on your residence, it may infiltrate the attic through various kinds of vents, and can then get into the household air supply.

    • If I remember correctly the word is that SO2 easely gets rained out, so I would think that one of those air purifiers which take in air and clean it by pushing it throug water should clean a lot of it out, you are not making the air deliberatly, alkaline but you would be removing some or a lot of the SO2 from the air inside

    • Hi Irpsit,
      Houses leak so its hard to pressurise one, I suggest you put together an air scrubber. If you make up the caustic filter suggested for face masks but put them over a fan or even a vacuum cleaner you can circulate the air in the room through the filter and scrub it clean.

      Bob

    • If you want to keep gasses out of your house you’ll need a clean air source to pressurise with, your best best is to minimise circulation from outside, seal windows etc and try to clean the air already in your house.

    • Hi Irpsit. Just to keep things scientific, SO2 does not dissolve in water to produce H2SO4. It just forms a solution of SO2 in water that acts like the weak and elusive acid H2SO3 or sulfurous acid. It will form salts called sulfites for example with sodium bicarbonate, maybe bisulfites. I’m not sure in this case but that doesn’t really matter, it will purify the air.
      Sulfuric acid H2SO4 is formed when SO3 dissolves in water. SO2 reacts in the upper atmosphere to SO3 under the influence of UV light. (reactions with ozone ie.) The salts are sulfates. Sulfuric is a very aggressive acid that dissolves or corrodes almost anything.

      • You got it. Eventually, sulfites will get oxidized by oxygen in the atmosphere to sulfates. Also, the aggressiveness of sulfuric acid depends on the concentration, which will be fairly low here. However, a basic solution will absorb acidic gasses better than a neutral or acidic one. (Look up equilibrium to understand why.) Hence, baking soda helps.

    • You cannot increase the air pressure without getting air from somewhere else. The wet towel with baking soda on a fan should work. Sodium carbonate (washing soda) will have a little more neutralizing power, but not by much, and you’ll have to wash your hands after handling it, as it is mildly corrosive. DON’T try adding any gasses to the air, as these may be toxic, too. If these solutions are inadequate, then you need to evacuate to a safer location rather than trying to purify the air.

    • Does that raise air pressure indoors? How?

      I understand hot air rises, increasing pressure in the air near the ceiling, but decreases over the bottom, and so any leak in windows will just suck more air from the outdoors.

      I am skeptical that turning an heater on will help, if not the opposite effect.

        • But the pressure is promptly relieved though any available cracks. Is the house airtight? If not, then heating pushes out a little air as the temperature increases, and nothing more.

      • What kind of heater do You have? i have a very old hot air(blown) one. We have to cut the outside untake during our eruptions. But Thankfully Redoubt doesn’t erupt for long and the wind direction seems to change frequently. You either get a big dump of ash or not at all. Radiators wouldn’t have this problem. Best to all of You in Iceland: i’ve been praying for You. And if that ‘offends’ anyone, i’m not sorry. But i’ve been in eruptions and having compromised air is scary. And the feeling of claustrophobia can be overwhelming, for hours. And the Iceland eruptions go for so many days. Anyway, Very Best! to All of You and we’re thinking (and praying) for You across the world. motsfo

  9. I would think that a small swamp cooler with a basic solution in it would work. You would have to set up a dehumidifier also.

      • This is most likely caused by inflation south of the GFUM GPS station. Grimsvötn is a twin volcano together with the wildly unknown Háabunga volcano. My take is that Háabunga is inflating and that it is causing this.
        If this continues I would suspect an upcoming eruption there.

          • It also corresponds with the orbit of Höfn GPS.
            I was half expecting that we would see something happening at Grimsvötn, but I did not think the inflation would come at Háabunga. But, it is the only conclusion that makes sense given the current data.

            • Twinvolcano you say – dont anything about those yet – but as I have twins I presume that they would meet som of the same specificaments – like born at the same time, connected but not ONE – similar but not identical, sharing the same roots etc. Is that right???

              Carl – are you writing that you now expect the one of the two twins to erupt?
              Wont that result in the pressure lifting and the risk of the other twin minimizes – unless theres still more magma being intruded than erupted?

            • Even more interesting is the fact that this is a ground moving inflation which is tremorless. o.O critical point not reached yet?

            • It would take quite some time for the tremor to start, remember that we have not yet even seen an uptick in earthquakes. This is most likely due to the magma reservoir being fully formed and old so that it is flexible.
              My guess is that in a while we will start to see a marked increase in earthquakes for about a week, then an earthquake swarm, and after that perhaps a HT episode.
              I am not going to say that an eruption will occur prior to seeing at least earthquakes forming a clear pre-eruption pattern.

        • Grimsvotn or something along its system is also getting magma. Or this is a reflection of the large tectonic movements.

          I think eventually we will see an eruption somewhere southwest of Grimsvotn, in the glacier, as ocasionall swarms occur there. It reminds me of Kistufell some years ago.

        • Carl, excuse me- I did not pick up from your comment, “If this continues I would suspect an upcoming eruption there”……is that in “geologic time”:)…or in “human time”?:) aka during this swarm/eruption event or at a later time: ie. (3-5 years)! Thanks

          • If the current rate of inflation continues we are definitely talking human lifetime span here. At 2cm per day inflation and if we imagine that to continue at the same speed I would guess life could get interesting within a month.
            But, it is still way to early really to say anything. I would like to see earthquakes first around the magma reservoir.

            • I usually expect earthquakes or at least swarms to appear when the chamber fills to the critical point and the stress starts building up. The longer the fast inflation progresses without earthquakes, the more interesting the outcome could hypothetically be.

            • Thank You! Is it possible the deflation at Barda is flexing the entire Vat glacier upward (inflation and N) due to the plasticity of the ice or are the distances too wide/large/far for such flexing? I guess as I type I just answered my question( not seeing the inflation at other stations). A very interesting development- A TRULY fascinating event! I become comfortable understanding the scale and dynamics of the event…..and something comes along and just increases my AWE!:) Look forward to the informed comment in regards!

  10. Good Morning

    I think they may have done a rescale on the plot

    Just when you think that all is going along as planned, it sneaks up behind you and says Boo

    Carl

    What is making you favour Haabunga over another Grims eruption?

    • Ok I see it now, compared to the movement of the last eruption at Grims, this is completely different and more one directional

      I think lol

    • I would say the GPS motion is not typical for Grimsvotn, and the fact that there is no zonal component of the movement.

      • Háabunga is due south of the Nunatak that GFUM is on so there would be no EW component as it inflates.
        If it is the Háabunga that is inflating (which seems likely given the data) the center of inflation should be 5 to 6 km due south so no wonder the poor GPS is sprinting to the north to get away.

          • More likely to be Thordharhyrna than Geirvörtur.
            Problem is that the trajectories on other GPS-stations do not support it being anything more south than Háabunga right now.
            But, and this is important. There is a delay in orbit change for stations more far away, so in a couple of days we will most likely know exactly which volcano is recalcitrant. But, it would be one of 3, and those are in falling order of likelihood Háabunga, Thordharhyrna and Háagöngur(Va).

            There is a Háagöngur(Vo) also, that is on the Vonarskard fissure swarm and is not related at all to the more impresive Háagöngur(Vatnajökull). I just denotate them like this so that any newcomer does not look at the wrong volcano on the Google Earth.

        • Thanks, makes perfect sense now

          I know you have long ago suspected something like this but…

          I am still confused how a fissure from Bardarbunga went were it did, outside of its field and into an area not really mapped as being part of any specific fissure area. Is the current fissure part of Grims and now is pushing south without signs or is this just part of a large rifting episode?

          • Grimsvötn and ´Háabunga are either a dual volcano, or Grimsvötn has two large magma reservoirs. Both are basically on the same Mountain range.
            Grimsvötn has been ramping up for decades and will probably get involved at some stage in the current rifting episode. Remember that this is a volcano that blows off about every 3 to 7 years and that it has more eruptible magma than Yellowstone.

            • “…and that it has more eruptible magma than Yellowstone.”

              hahahah this is probably one of the most awesome things that I love about Grimsvotn, and the fact how little people actually realize that. 😀

            • Carl,

              You know this area like your backyard! amazing

              So before August, GFUM was heading south and really took off only to turn north just as fast, does this show there was something stirring before the 16th?

            • What was happening at Grimsvötn before the 16th was the normal and almost eternal inflation of Grimsvötn as it gobbles up magma at a steady pace prepairing for its next eruption that during normal circumstances would have come somewhere between 2015 and 2018.

            • I see in your article on Grimsvotn that you mention that Grimsvotn magma chamber is essentially full. Given the close proximity of Grimsvotn to Haabunga and Bardarbunga (although Bardarbunga is believed to be on a different volcanic system), could the inflation of Haabunga and eruption of Bardarbunga be directly related to the magma chamber at Grimsvotn saying “I can’t absorb any new magma” causing the magma influx to be diverted to other nearby systems? I am thinking pressure equalization – if Grimsvotn is at much higher pressure than the surrounding systems, it seems that the magma intrusion into Grimsvotn, assuming there is an easy path out of the mantle feed of the Grimsvotn volcano into the surrounding magma chambers, would transition to the path of least energy, that of surrounding volcanic systems.

            • Grimsvötn has a much to weakened top of the lid for that to happen. The magma would just squirt out upwards. No, this is new magma arriving from depth.

  11. @Irpsit:
    The water in the towel would be what would scrub out the SO2 not the bicarbonate or any other chemical compund you may use. The principal use for the bicarbonate is just to act as a buffering agent so you do not get a sulphuric acid towel on your hands.
    What you are proposing to do would only give you at worst various highly toxic gasses as the H2SO4 reacts with the other chemical. And many of those you propose to use are even more toxic and damaging to your lungs than the SO2 levels indoors would be to begin with.

    Do not get excitable on this one Irpsit, stay calm and rational. I do not want to read about you having whacked yourself by creating a Sarin-gas outputting air scrubber… Quite literaly take a deep breath and relax :mrgreen:

    • Thanks. So far, everything still fine where I live. Worst is just in East Iceland and only for a few peak moments.

    • Hi Carl. Luckily for Irpsit and any of us really, sulfuric acid H2SO4 is not at play here. SO2+H2O is of course H2SO3 an elusive and weak acid. See earlier post as reaction to Irpsits first question..

        • I posted double about this cause geologists seem to to have a problem with the difference of both. I’fve seen some papers where they measure SO4 concentrations. Well SO4 doesn’t exist. SO4 2- does but that’s an ion. So if they measure. SO4. Do they measure H2SO4. Do they measure SO4 2- or do they measure SO3? . No clue really. but big difference. The presence of SO4 2- can indicate very acid or neutral. It just depends if the acid reacted with metals or not, like Na2SO4 will result in a solution of 2Na+ and SO4 2-. Not an acid. 2h+ and SO4 2- is.

            • Hahaha! If this were anywhere but the VC, there would be blood everywhere! Seems a chemist just “enlightened” a geologist, but it didn’t turn into a bar brawl, as it surely would in the “outside” world! Disagreements, miscalculations–people being human abound in the VC, but no blood on the floor. Ah, there’s hope for mankind! 😀 Thank you, gentlemen!

            • Carl’s advice remains spot on. Just a little difference in mechanics. SoCalGal. i think you get the spirit of this place. 🙂

            • Gentlemen, you werde the light ob my painful day.
              Thank you all for your polite and very nice way to discuss science.
              I enjoy every single minute!

            • At risk of repeating something already said. To summarize, SO2 reacts with water in an equilibrium reaction to give H2SO3. H2SO3 will react with Sodium Bicarbonate to give Na2SO3(sodium sulfite) + CO2 . The CO2 normally is lost to atmosphere so this is essentially an ireversible reaction. However Na2SO3 can react with weak acids to regenerate H2SO3.

              So keep the solution weakly basic and the Na2SO3 solution will be stable and the SO2 in effect “captured” as the salt Sodium Sufite. Having an excess of NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate, also called sodium hydrogen carbonate) will meet the requirements of keeping the solution weakly basic.

              It should be emphasized that Lye (sodium hydroxide) should not be used to maintain basicity. Sodium Hydroxide is one of the most dangerous chemicals available to the public, non-chemists. Sodium Hydroxide solutions react with protective skin grease and then immediately starts to attack the skin proper.

              Dilute solutions of mineral acids (eg HCl or H2SO4) are slow to attack the skin because they are slow to attack the protective skin greases.

              Even very dilute sodium hydroxide solutions will immediately start to damage the eye if it gets splashed in the face. Immediate washing of the eye can limit damage but some damage will take place almost immediately. There is a longer window of response open in the case of dilute acids (but not nitric acid) and immediate purging of the eyes with clean water will result in little or no injury.

              And finally to collaborate what was said earlier, SO2 is mainly converted into SO3 (prcursor to sulfuric acid) in the upper atmosphere under catalysis by sunlight. So no, normally their is not much H2SO4 formed in the air at ground level.

          • So would using a humidifier indoors help? I was thinking that the more H2O in the air, the better. the vaporizers you can buy for when you have a cold are readily available and inexpensive. If you put the baking soda in the vaporizer water, though, it would just clog up the thing, maybe, huh? But would a vaporizer help at all?

  12. SO2 situation. Today wind will blow the SO2 more towards the Myvatn region for a while. Then, wind becomes again southwest and blows it again to the east of Iceland. By Wednesday, the wind will calm down but blow mostly southeast/east/northeast, then some SO2 might reach Akureyri and even the more western and southern parts of Iceland, but not that much. Trend is still towards affecting mosrtly the east of Iceland until the end of the month.

    Yesterday we actually had some haze here in south Iceland, wind was a bit from the northeast for a while, but I think it could still have been just fog. No sulphur/other smell like I felt in the north and east of Iceland. If it was SO2 it was quite little. This morning air is clean again.

    • Ok if we have an shallow caldera magma chamber and under this a zone between this chamber and the hotter material feeding the fissure eruption,,is it possible the larger quakes are due to flexing of this zone?Think my meds are too strong😊

  13. @Carl. It’s not Grimsvotn system I think. Look at Kaldafell station.

    Kaldafell, SW of Grimsvotn, near Laki, is also rapidly moving northwards. This makes me think it can’t be Grimsvotn, but that this is due to the large tectonic movements across a wide area. Or maybe something in the system further south (Oraefajokull).

    • Or simply in the southwest side of all the action:
      every station north of Bardarbunga fissure swarm moves south
      every station south of it moves northwards

      As if the wide rifting area is all sinking.

      • As if magma is pushing its way under Bardarbunga from under the fissure zone,but how can that be when the caldera is subsiding? “riddles”

    • Öraefajökull is not south of KALF, it is ENE of KALF.
      But, the motion visible here is due to tectonic motion, you are right about that. I am though expecting the trajectory of KALF to change in a couple of days. Remember that more distant trajectory changes are delayed a few days.

      But, it is what makes me quite certain that the inflation is close to GFUM.

    • There were brief periods of fairly intense geo-magnetic storming last now. Looks like someone had the camera out at the right time! Conditions were changing so fast that by the time alerts went out storming had usually subsided again. Still possible for tonight though if Bz dips South. Good site for real time info http://solarham.net/

  14. Updated information from the IMO

    13 September 2014 11:30 – from the Scientific Advisory Board

    Scientists from the Icelandic Met Office and the Institute of Earth Sciences and representatives of the Civil Protection in Iceland attend the meetings of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection. Representative from The Environment Agency of Iceland and the Chief Epidemiologist and the Directorate of Health, were also present.

    Conclusions of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection:

    The eruptive activity at Holuhraun and the the subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera floor continues at similar intensity.

    The subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera and seismic activity continues the same as the last few days.

    The GPS station on top of Bárðarbunga shows a subsidence of the caldera around half a meter over the last 24 hours.

    The volcanic eruption in Holuhraun is still ongoing with similar strength as last few days. Lava flows at similar rates as yesterday towards East into Jökulsá á Fjöllum.

    The lava filed was measured yesterday afternoon to be 24,5 square kilometres.

    Accumulated volume of the lava is now estimated to be at least 200 million cubic meters.

    Gas cloud from the eruption drifts to the east. High level of SO2, sulphur dioxide, was measured at Reyðarfjörður last night around 10:00 o’clock. The highest value measured were just under 4000 micrograms per cubic meter. These are the highest values measured in Iceland. High level, 685 micrograms per cubic meter, was also measured in Egilsstaðir.

    Warning was sent via the GSM system to all mobile phones in Fjarðarbyggð.

    Air quality in urban areas in the East of Iceland:

    Forecasts indicate that high concentrations of sulphuric gases may be expected in the northern part of the Eastern fjords, Fljótsdalur, Hérað, Jökuldalur, and on Langanes. Forecast indicates that concentration may become higher later today. The Environment Agency will set up new monitoring stations in Akureyri and in South Iceland. Geographical conditions must be considered when estimating air quality.

    Instructions:

    People who feel discomfort are advised to stay indoors, close the windows, turn up the heat and turn off air conditioning. Use periods of good air quality to ventilate the house. Measurements of air quality can be found on the webpage http://www.loftgaedi.is The Meteorological Office issues forecast on its web-page and warnings if conditions change to the worse.

    Instructions from the office of the Chief Epidemiologist and The Environment Agency can be found on their web-sites http://www.ust.is and http://www.landlaeknir.is

    The Icelandic Met Office will read forecasts for sulphuric gases along with weather news on the national radio and TV.

    The Environment Agency is working on getting more measuring equipment to better monitor the gases coming from the volcanic eruption.

    Air quality at the eruption site:

    Gas emissions at the eruption site remain high. As local gas concentrations at the site can be life threatening, people at the eruption site should wear gas masks and gas meters. At the eruption site, local wind anomalies can occur due to thermal convection from the hot lava. This makes the conditions on site extremely dangerous as winds can change suddenly and unpredictably. Scientists in the field carry gas meters for their security.

    Degassing from the volcanic eruption is now estimated to be up to 750 kg/sec.

    Three scenarios are considered most likely:

    ** Subsidence of the Bárðarbunga caldera stops and the eruption on Holuhraun declines gradually.

    ** Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, prolonging or strengthening the eruption on Holuhraun. In this situation, it is likely that the eruptive fissure would lengthen southwards under Dyngjujökull, resulting in a jökulhlaup and an ash-producing eruption. It is also possible that eruptive fissures could develop in another location under the glacier.

    ** Large-scale subsidence of the caldera occurs, causing an eruption at the edge of the caldera. Such an eruption would melt large quantities of ice, leading to a major jökulhlaup, accompanied by ashfall.

    Other scenarios cannot be excluded.

    • Just 2 openly declared eruption scenarios,the first one where activity stops is not an eruption scenario,I wonder how many “other scenarios there are?

  15. @ GPS stations:

    Map with all stations:
    http://strokkur.raunvis.hi.is/gps/cgps.html

    Many stations also here:
    http://strokkur.raunvis.hi.is/gps/#VATN

    – Grimsfjall and Kalfafell (SW Grimsvotn) move North.
    – Hamarinn and Vonarskard move towards Bardarbunga caldera
    – Station to the west and north of Tungnafellsjokull move West or NW
    – Stations towards the east of Holuhraun move East, including those quite far away, like Saudarháls, near Karahnjúkar.
    – Stations very near Askja caldera also show rifting occuring there (Hrímalda moves W; Thorvaldshraun moves E)

    Make this as a large rifting occuring between Bardarbunga caldera and Askja, with movement towards Bardarbunga caldera, or towards the southwest fissure swarm of Bardarbunga.

    How will the adjacent Hreppar and Tjornes microplates react to this? And how about nearby volcanoes, Kverfjoll, Oraefajokull, Tungnafellsjokull, Thordarhyma, Hekla, Askja…

  16. http://ruv.is/frett/botn-bardarbunguoskju-seig-um-25-sm (via Google translate)

    Bottom Bárðarbunga caldera sank by 25 centimeters at a time when there was a 4.9 earthquake. This shows GPS – meter was placed on top of the dome yesterday. There is still considerable pumice from the eruption of lava pocket but slowed the earthquake swarm corridor. Still trembling though Bárðarbunga.

    Image re-hosted. Source: IMO

  17. Heating air by 3°C expands it by about 1%; heating a house by 3°C expels 1% of the air through cracks around windows, under doors, etc, and the outflow stops when the air stops getting warmer. This can’t be preventing the influx of more than about 1% of the house volume, and probably much less, a volume on the order of a few cubic meters.

    Why is turning on heaters significantly more helpful than just closing the doors and windows?

    A tasteful combination of water-soaked cloth, baking soda, and a fan can do a lot more, easily cleaning more then 1 cubic meter per minute.

    • Indeed. In a home without a fan, but with a vacuum cleaner, one might remove the collection bag from its canister, fill the void with loosely-packed material (such as polyester pillow batting, from a sacrificed pillow) that is moistened with baking soda solution. Run the cleaner and the exhaust should, I think, be more thoroughly de-sulfated than with cloth and fan.

      An experiment should be done. I gather Icelandic homes aren’t routinely stocked with gas masks. Home-made air cleaners could be the next best thing.

  18. I hope the government people are being totally up front with their findings.

    It’s only fair for people in potentially affected areas to have time to consider there options IF the situation worsens. I think we’ve passed the wearing blinkers stage.

    • My guess is they are not sure what scenario will result from their findings and its a moving goal,they are working furiously to keep up with?Does this make sense?

  19. I had read that the lava flow from Holuhraun was anticipated to cover the Skínandi waterfall by this weekend. Does anyone know the status?

  20. Phew! I just caught up and now it’s time to make evening meal. I’ll be back later.
    Thanks to all of you “regulars” for your helpful comments and information. 🙂

    Well I’m back….. I forgot to click on “Post Comment” …….Duuuuurgh!

    • Hi Dr Webley
      Very nice images as always, thanks for sharing them here.
      If I have understood your work correctly:
      Surface activity in/at the fissure is confined to a smaller area than previously, with the small outlying fissures now reactivated.
      Kind regards,
      The Libraridragon.

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