Red skies over Holuhraun

Last night the most stunning images flowed in over Mila cam Bardabunga 1.

Webcam Screenshot by Spica

Webcam Screenshot by Spica

That radar station or as we on VC call it Dalek R2D2 got a visit. We could watch 2 people moving around with flashlights, but sometimes at least one just stood there in awe, watching the scene developing so close to him/her/? .

Webcam Screenshot by Spica

Webcam Screenshot by Spica

This image was done a when night started setting in. Can you see the column of smoke rising in the background of the dalek? Thats were lava meats the water of the closeby river. Often it is not as distinctive as in the image above and people think some other kind of action might be starting or going on. When the repairs and/or the refueling ( Mike Ross informed us that the Radar is diesel powered and needs to be refueled from time to time) were finally done the jeep left the sight and during this some odd lights could be watched. iTslpTW Beam me up Scotty! The Radar station seems to be working again and is blinking either happily or feeling lonely. 😉 The jeep left as the work was done, even though we envy people who are able to go there, keep in mind that this eruption is emitting quite some SO2 clouds and it might not feel as pleasant as it looks, to stand there next to the cam. On the first image on top, you can see that the main vent in the center is very active, but the height cannot be calculated correctly from this picture. The burning red lava reflects in the steam smoke and gas cloud above it. In daylight the vent appears much lower. Some people were also fooled by clouds in the background. This were normal cumulus clouds. Trust me people. I have seen the tremor and the first images of Eyjafjalla and Grimsvotn and Sinabung and of course Etna. IF a bigger eruption starts, you notice immediately. There is no question, is this something or not. You will know with certainty. We have seen a Mag. 5,2 earthquake in the caldera but no new erupt is confirmed. Nor did the tremor graphs change much. Again. You would notice immediately if something big happened. With Grimsvotn, the sharp rise was very visible on all Icelandic stations. You can check for yourself ( hraun links are allowed.)  http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/oroi/allarsort.html. Nothing out of the ordinary ( since the fissure eruption started) to be seen there. The last 2 Updates by IMO:

9th September 2014 06:40 – from geoscientist on duty

Earthquake activity is continuing in Bárðarbunga, in the northern part of the dike intrusion and Herðubreiðartögl. Around 30 earthquakes were measured this night. The largest one occured at 01:07 at the northern caldera rim of Bárðarbunga and was of magnitude 5.2 (not manually checked yet; average of USGS and EMSC magnitude estimates, and IMO-alert automatic). Tremor seems similar through the night, eruption continues.

8th September 2014 19:20 – from geoscientist on duty

The earthquake activity today continues at the northern part of the dyke intrusion. The largest earthquake  in the dyke since the end of August occurred at 16:27 today with magnitude 4.5. These are the largest earthquakes located today at the caldera rim: kl. 06:15 M 4.8 kl. 07:20 M 4.6 kl. 14:48 M 5.0 kl. 17:53 M 4.3 An earthquake swarm is taking place north of Herðubreið. About 80 earthquakes have been recorded today, all below magnitude 2. Swarms in this area are not uncommon. Due to high concentration of SO2, scientists are leaving the area. aaaa Mike Ross: I’m in Myvatn now, going up to Holuraun later today, for 2-3 days. I will tweet ( @eruptionchaser ) or FB post (tmfdmike) what I can! But I will be working.He might show up on the Milcam later today. And now the eye candy Carl promised earlier: Photographer:  Eggert Norddahl ( VC productions removed on request of Eggert as long as he never got the promised money for his expenses.)

Fire Fountains at Holuhraun by night. Photograph by Eggert Norddahl. Copyright by Volcanocafé Productios.

Fire Fountains at Holuhraun by night. Photograph and copyright by Eggert Norddahl. All rights reserved.

Near the Holuhraun Fire fountains. Photographer Eggert Norddahl, copyright Volcanocafé Productions.

Near the Holuhraun Fire fountains. Photograph and copyright by Eggert Norddahl. All rights reserved.

Spica

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1,402 thoughts on “Red skies over Holuhraun

  1. How many cauldrons have been observed and what is the the distance between them,i.e are they clustered in one area of the glacier or are they more spread out?

  2. Dragon – looking at all the drumplots, why are all the SW and NW and Central plots shimmying like they are have a road roller hammer running over the ground everywhere, yet the plots to the east and steady and level until there is disturbance detected?
    Is the harder old ground of the east shaking as a reaction to things happening further down?

      • I have no idea what is causing this though, from memory, isn’t this what happened prior to the second fissure eruption, when they evacuated everyone from the Holuhraun field because of the constant, unexplained tremor?

        Comparing the pattern to known patterns and their causes, it would appear that they are mostly closely related to the waves caused by electrical activity (eg: lightning) and Carl did say that there is interference from the radar equipment showing up on the seismos. Not sure if this particular pattern is what he meant though.

    • Wind is probably more of a factor. These things are so sensitive that even a moderate to stiff breeze rattling the shack they are in will have an effect.

      • You could be right,but this is an unusual and highly complex volcanic event so by definition odd things will happen with the drums even if that is not happening now?

        • Hi, HighViscosityMoron.

          Nothing strange does not happen, all based on seismology. There is only a seismic, teleseismic and volcanic events and more, of course, as the background noise, which we see right now.

          By the way, welcome VolcanoCafe! 🙂

          • Ok i more meant unusual patterns of signals rather than completely new signals never before seen by science😁

  3. A number of people have commented about the relative lack of visibility compared to previous days (occasionally speculating about glacial floods, Bardarbunga popping and so on). The wind direction has certainly changed, but I think that it has increased in strength too, therefore the smoke and steam is staying closer to the ground and obscuring the field of vision.

  4. If I may, obviously “clouds” was the wrong word. Proper wording would be plume. Having said that, I have been watching these cameras since the day they were put up. I have never seen the plume doing what it is doing now. Is it because there is more moisture due to the recent rain storm and the interaction with the lava? Is it because the fissure itself has become larger? Is it because a new fissure may have opened up nearer or beneath the glacier at the foot of the mountain? I don’t know. But that is why I and all the other people who obviously love volcanology come here….so we can learn. This is a place to chat and learn. Yes, at time those of us with limited knowledge tend to get over excited over things. But, this is where we come to learn…I thought that is what this page was for….Thank you dragons for sharing your knowledge, and kindly bringing us back under control when we get to enthusiastic. For all the others who obviously loose patience with people like me and others who can get a little excited, I will apologize….but, I ask this, please have a bit more patience with those of us who are not as learned.

    • Hi Pomans, you are experiencing what we have all had to go through! Your first volcano is so exciting and you think you are the first to see something that no one else can see! I stared at Katla for about a month and every little cloud was a plume, then I stared at Hekla for three years and know that when clouds baloon over her top they are just clouds. When something new happens the Dragons will swarm around here telling you everything. Some of us get a bit tetchy when new kids appear on the block, but really we love how you are, because that’s the way we used to be! Stick around, check what’s already been posted before you post and read the old stuff in the archive. In a year or so, you’ll be cuffing some young pup and telling him to stop jumping up and down – it’s just another storm. 😀

      • yes this my first…and so excited! I was just so absolutely sure that feature above Bardarbunga was the start of this. I watched it carefully, it didn’t get infused with the other clouds went straight up in the air, in the background above Bardarbunga…and it looked a lot like the one that was posted of other volcanoes going off in the past….Ah, well. I do absolutely love it here, and am so thankful for all that I am learning, not just from the dragons, but everybody….but I got to say…
        quote from Irpsit’s post
        “Last: don’t speculation about eruptions starting elsewhere. Flights are going to Holuhraun now every 2 hours, So anything starting, you will know it real time. Be a new eruption site or a glacial flood. Unless it occurs at night. Also tremor is no indicator. Best clues are really the airplane visual observation. More on that later”
        I’ll still be keeping my eyes out…but, instead of a Oh, it’s blowing it’s top….I will be saying, “Hey, what do y’all make of this?” ROFL

        • Exactly! To be honest this is my first Icelandic eruption as I was on holiday when Grimsvotn erupted and I missed the whole thing. That was very quick and this is much more exciting – a slow-burning thriller rather than a short action movie! But I’ve been watching the webcams for ages and also watched a lot of the videos posted here of other volcanos erupting. You’ll learn very quickly – it’s a magical place. 🙂

      • Well said, Talla. My first volcano was Redoubt in Alaska. I was fortunate to have access to great webcams, photos seismograms. daily and sometime hourly updates. It was so exciting, but I had no one to share that excitement with. I learned about Volcanocafe during the activity of Bob and what a difference this has made in my life. Not only the amazing amount of learning, but the comradery. The excitement then and the guessing of “what is happening?” was no different than what we are seeing now in Iceland. I welcome all the newbies for their desire to share their excitement and learn as the process enfolds. Volcano watching requires a lot of patience, so let’s all be extending that patience to others.

    • Hi Pomans! Like you, I have been following and love this site for the same reason 🙂 I am learning too, and there is so much to learn here! Anything I know about this subject, I have learned here… it is fascinating. I thank all the experts here for their patience with we newbies, and their willingness to share what they know with us. After all….someone taught them….and I think it is admirable that they are willing to do the same for others. 🙂

    • How about a higher water content in the eruption ,higher % H2O ,more water vapour in the magma causing more convection in the eruption gas column,meaning the properties of the magma being erupted has evolved.This answer is so dumb the dragons a shaking their heads right now and wishing I would just go away and stop trying to ruin their forum
      😃😅😉

      • A higher water content would also lead to a more powerful venting? Correct? The reason I say that, is because there seemed to be some incredible pressure pushing that steam out….was really moving quickly…and higher water content could explain why it looked so cumulous (?).

      • As I understand it yes.Particulary if the magma viscosity has increased,it was already a rather sticky basalt at close to 51% silica and other geology based reasons that are above my very modest level of understanding?Now if we run with this theory ,what implications does it have to the source of the magma and by extension the activity at the caldera?

        • Hmmmm . . . hydrovolcanic eruption? Surtseyan? Makes sense. The water is there . . . from the glacier. It happened before in Iceland . . . obviously, with Surtsey in 1963. I don’t know! I need to read faster!

            • well, I think, yes. Small eruptions under the glacer, and now potentially a lake forming, with water above ground level interacting with lava, but also seeping underground, interacting with magma. Did I read somewhere that water interacting with magma makes it MORE, not less viscous? but then, a viscous magma would erupt rather slowly…ahhhhbut no, not if it’s going to be hydrovolcanic . . . ?

      • What was the question? 😉
        Here are some pics of cumulus clouds, from Wikipedia.






        DragonNote: please everyone, no more than four links in any comment, otherwise it goes to straight to the dungeon (‘Pending’ folder) and needs a dragon to release it. Thanks /UKV

  5. The clouds over the glacier are called in the scientific world” the weather”😁Any eruption will possibly start in a less spectacular way then many would expect,but this will possibly melt a lot of ice and possibly cause a large flood and then possibly lead to much more spectacular and even more hazardous activity.Thats what I read into the official statements?

    • So what will have to occur for all this to reach a new steady state? I think I can see how things are going to get worse according to IMO) before they get better, but can I get the short story of how Bardi gets settled down again?

      I just IMO would stop being so cagey about this whole situation. It’s not like Icelanders can’t handle the truth. This isn’t a Jack Nicholson movie! IMHO, of course. Maybe Jack’s going to show up, who knows? I know nothing.

  6. I’m no expert on this field, but for me it looks like there is coming alot of steam from somewhere on the Mila cam 1.

    Can someone who are more expert on this field explain better on what’s going on?

  7. Yay! I have managed to catch up and my Broadband hasn’t stopped. My broadband provider is having problems so I will be in and out.
    This so reminds me of watching Bob in the Canary islands. Every cloud. Every blob on the sea.
    Now I am older and wiser. However still fascinated.
    I am no expert but I think if Bardarbunga erupts we will see signs that cannot be mistaken. Large floods. HUGE plume and very black sky.
    Thank you Spica too for your lovely post 🙂 Wonderful pictures and humour.
    Thank you irpsit for your latest report. Lots of interesting bits of information.
    Will post this before I lose the internet again.

    • Oh I just want to add that Jokulhaups, the floods from a melting glacier, are dangerous and damaging. They sweep away bridges and powerlines. This in Iceland is not good as the only really main road which allows access to the larger settlements is circular and follows (mainly) the coastline. When bridges are swept away then there is often a long diversion around the country. The floods carry huge blocks of ice and their force and scouring power will sweep everything away in it’s path. farmland, power stations, Buildings, Everything. That is why the IMO is so worried. Not just the effects of the eruption but the damage to be caused by the floods. They will have a huge impact on the Icelandic people and infrastructure.
      Worth reading these accounts of the hugeness of these monsters.
      http://www.wdcgc.spri.cam.ac.uk/news/jokulhlaup/

      • wow. wish the link to the other photos worked though. I have bookmarked it and will return later.

    • Probably the most salient thing said in a while.

      If Bardabunga goes… there will be no question in anyone’s mind about what it is or what is responsible.

      I have not seen Barda erupt, but from all indications, it doesn’t pussyfoot around about it when it’s time.

  8. English text with a nice video about this “hair” (though comment in Icelandish):

    Pele´s hair: A fascinating phenomenon created by the volcano
    News in english, kl 13:45, 10. september 2014

  9. The vonarskard tremor chart has been rather interesting recently with high frequency tremor rising and falling at higher rates than we’ve seen all of september. Possibly more relevant, the lower frequency tremor has slowly been climing as well behind the high frequency tremor.

      • Not necessarily. Tremor arises primarily from exsolution of gases. If however, there was a sudden fracture/collapse of the caldera roof there may not be any preceding signs of magma rising to the surface (which is where exsolution occurs).

        • Sorry but I guess I mistakenly thought that as the caldera subsided magma would be migrating up via the caldera rim fault ,which is already contains large amounts of water,causing significant tremor via magmatic induced hydrothermal activity?Thankyou I will defer to your much greater knowledge in these matters:)

            • Re: “tremor is mostly due to gas coming out of solution.” but I thought all the EQs as the fissure opened were due to the magma breaking rock. Different sorts of tremor? Novice here!

            • similkimeen, I think they may be talking here about harmonic tremor. I am sure there is a link above where you can find information on harmonic tremor. Either in the essential information for new readers or in the Dragons Hoard.

            • Hi Similkeen, yep that’s right. You have volcanic / tectonic (VT) quakes which look like a normal earthquake: a sharp crack and the signal tails off. That is what we have seen so far. Harmonic tremor (HT) on the other hand is a constant buzz. When a volcano is in full eruption this saturates the plot and you won’t see any more white space. A lot of members here are keeping an eye on the tremor plots which are attuned to the frequency that HT sets in (between 2 and 6 Hz) as a first sign of magma being involved. These are so finely attuned they pick up the eruption at Holuhraun nicely. In a gas rich ashy eruption these signals will be off the chart.

          • What you describe is indeed highly plausible. Effusive gas-depleted evolved magmas migrating up the ring faults through top pressure on the mush in the chamber. The fact that there is no sustained tremor on the plots is a good sign that this has not happened yet.

    • I have been watching that too. I was wondering if it is not associated with the more southerly winds.

  10. If the caldera magma is rhyolite or similar then to erupt it has to be gas rich rhyolite,so if it’s gas rich rhyolite then the possibility of eruption depends on the temperature of the magma,so this possible eruption is very temperature dependent,unless there is sudden depressurization so should we be watching for symptoms of increasing temperature in the caldera,hydrothermal activity etc,not an expert so sorry for the lack science in the post?

    • Good questions. I agree, which is why people get so excited about cauldrons appearing. However, all the cauldrons have so far been outside the caldera and are indicative of a fissure eruption under the ice.
      Generally rhyolite erupts at lower temperature than basalt as it has spent a much longer time nearer the surface (and hence lower temperatures) whereas basalt often comes from much deeper regions (and hence hotter). (edit: As I understand it..) bodies of rhyolite can transition into an eruptible state when fractionation proceeds to a point where the gases can no longer be contained in solution and start popping out of solution or when a mafic body gives them a good shot in the arm and the heat and added pressure puts them into a state that can no longer be constrained.

      I would love to know what the scientists think about the state of the magma in the Bardarbunga system at the moment, i.e. whether either of these two scenarios apply here. I suspect it is actually low in volatiles but maybe the caldera is busily degassing but we just can’t see it under all the ice. Somehow, though I doubt it as this has been going on for a while and as far as I have heard there are no surface manifestations of degassing despite the massive movements around the ring faults.

      By way of comparison Redoubt had fumaroles appearing about a year before its last eruption (also under a thick ice cover in places).

      • I am not suggesting this will happen overnight ,but as you implied even if this was an effusive eruption squeezing viscous magma thru the rim,hydrothermal activity would be significant a d that has not happened yet.The role of a basalt trigger,Temperature?

      • Gas depleted Rhyolite definitely can erupt as a blocky lava flow or a dome building event. This has happened in quite a few notable areas, most recently at Cordon Caulle’s Rhyolitic lava flow that was still advancing as of 2013.

        The question is whether Rhyolite in Bard’s caldera would be gas depleted or not. We really can’t tell until an eruption occurs. We know that the magma here is very high in SO2, and naturally rather low in water vapor. I don’t believe there are many known active fumaroles in the Bardarbunga central volcano area, but that doesn’t necessarily imply that there is no degassing of SO2 going on here.

        Also, while the magma is low in water, the fact that it’s all sitting below a 700 meter high glacier and two subglacial lakes makes this a bit of a moot point, since water is available in a very large supply once an eruption breaks through, or once a crack opens in the caldera.

        • Remember Kelud’s dome appearing in the middle of the lake before finally popping its top once the lake was long gone?

        • Would not any degassing of the magma will be noticed in the chemical analysis of the current glacial outflow,so they will possibly have a good idea gas concentration in the subglacial water source,what they possibly will find be harder to ascertain is the subglacial water temperature and this temperature would be the critical thing.The ice is acting as a masking agent to the activity below?If the magma has sufficient water in solution to drive an initial eruption once magmatic temperature is correct and the magma is close enough to the surface for the gas /water vapour to exsolve then an eruption will occur,once the eruption is in progress then the driver is in place for larger eruptions if sufficient eruptible magma is present?Whew that was a mouthful of hogwash😃

    • RUV reports that the 2600 micrograms per m³ measured in Reyðarfjörður in this spike are the highest measurments of SO2 in athmosphere that have ever been seen in Iceland. The general health limit for 1 hour exposure is at 350 micrograms per m³.

      • It’s 1ppm SO2. This is like one of those very smog days in Beijin, or like one of those very smog days of London back in the fifties. Although not catastrophic (yet) it’s certainly bad, quite bad.

    • I have asthma, and I always wonder how effective it is to stay indoors in case of air pollution. I mean, the house is not an airtight system, and the air in the house comes from outdoors. Is this just something they say because they don’t have any other suggestions? Not exercising, that makes sense.

      • The warning also recommends closing all windows and and shutting down AC if applicable. It wasn’t mentioned now but I have also heard that you should turn up the heat on radiators in this situation in order create a pressure differential between the outside and the inside of the house.

      • The main reason to stay indoors is that even though the house isn’t airtight it takes a long time to circulate all of the air. Which means the air inside contains an average air quality over X time. Thus minimizing harmful spikes in pollution such as this one.

      • Baking soda is your friend. Dissolve baking soda in warm water. Soak a cloth in it and let it dry to wear over your mouth. It will filter out the SO2. Put cloths at windows and doors where air can come in. You can also put a soaked cloth over a table fan to clear the air inside.
        Arm & Hammer is good quality baking soda and not expensive (compared to what I pay at the Dutch pharmacies) with little to none aluminium residue, available in most EU countries as well.

        • Not to be confused with baking powder in the UK. Baking soda is Bicarbonate of soda or Sodium Bicarbonate. Baking powder would be useless as it contains cream of tarter (potassium hydrogen tartrate) which is acidic. and sodium bicarbonate.

    • A local in Reyðarfjörður described the SO2 spike as a cloud that engulfed the town and the feeling was like breathing near the exhaust pipe of a lorry. He described irritation of the eyes and throat.

    • The SO2 levels are climbing in Reyðarfjörður again btw. I don’t understand this behavior or what to make of it. Are these exceptional pulses of gas released from the Holuhraun fissure or is an effect of weather and topography to funnel the gas to that particular location today?

  11. Here’s Bardabunga from the air – it really gives a sense of what a flat-topped volcano it is with its ice cover. Try to picture it without the icy cap! The ridges would be where the nunataks of the caldera wall are lurking just under the ice.

    I think it looks a bit like an Iron Age hillfort!

    Also, are those two cauldrons in the flat part on the left, just within the caldera wall ridges?

    • According to IMO, no ice cauldrons have appeared within the caldera perimeter of Bárðarbunga. What we are seeing here is normal as IMO has recorded no change in outward appearance. I’m more interested in the obvious slope of the thing; I assume this mirrors the slope of the caldera floor.

  12. Can’t see anything on either of those Mila cams right now, even though they’re both working fine. It’s incredibly dusty and likely very, very windy, as the Bard 2 cam’s shaking quite a bit!

  13. We appear to be in one of those ‘no reported earthquakes for nearly an hour’ spells now. The last time that happened was just before this morning’s 5.5 denture-rattler.

  14. There must be some hellacious wind there today! It’s normal to see Bard 2 shake a lot, but even Bard1 is moving around today. It usually doesn’t have much movement.

    • The two almost-simultaneous quakes will likely later show up as one. Once it can be resolved which depth and m is correct, IMO will adjust it. At least that’s what I’ve seen happen recently. Even when they’ve already gone to 99%. watch for more adjusting. It can happen.

  15. Ring fault question: The near-surface (top 2-3 km) are the subsidence of the caldera, but what about the deeper quakes, 5-10km deep? Is that still the subsidence, or is there another cause? How deep is the magma chamber? We had a couple 10km deep quakes last week, two of the ones today were 5-6km deep, and several over the past 2 days were 6-8km deep.

  16. Tremor is spiking across almost all the charts right now. The interesting thing, is tha tcompared to past spikes, there is almost a universal spike in the low frequency tremor as well as the higher frequency tremor.

      • Doubt it – I’m not an expert, but I wouldn’t think weather would cause a spike like this since it’s not that sudden. Also, it seems too convenient that tremor charts closer to Bardy and the fissure swarm are seeing more movement than those further away.

      • The really low frequencies (red and green) are outside the range of human hearing and denote the movement of magma. The blue is also very low and indicates the movement of deep water and ice. The blue may be able to pick up the low rumbling of thunder (not sure, would have to check that) but not the high frequencies of wind.

  17. Hi!

    For those of you, who are interested in historical handmade maps!
    Here is a link: http://gis.lmi.is/saga/
    Klick at Holuhraun-area and you will receive a topographic map from anno 1932 with contour lines in.
    And obviously much more. Have fun!

    Gizmo

    • Weird that non-Iceland media have lost interest because it hasn’t made a sustained ash cloud – even though it is threatening to go flat-out caldera a few hundred miles from Europe. Shows science literacy, I guess…

      Hopefully Euro governments are more in tune with the risks. This could go up with little or no warning.

      • I would be extremely surprised if European goverments are attuned to this risk. They seem to think of risks as man-made things. Wars, etc.

    • What i see is caldera subsidence leading to eruption via the ringfault in the presence of a newly created large subglacial lake with massive ice cap collapse,also sealing off the fissure eruption prior to this eruption occuring?

    • Looks like they are talking about the ‘plug’ in bardabunga that is maintaining huge pressure on the magma in the chamber . It think the diagram is a little simple as it has been said the plug is an inverse triangular shape floating on the magma. If water gets down past the plug then there will be an explosion. The degree of the reaction depends on how much of one thing gets into direct contact with ‘how much’ of the magma.

      Carl explained this in on of his posts, maybe one of the dragons will point you in the right direction…

    • If this model is right then we would expect to see the fissure flows increase dramatically shortly after each big bard eq, assuming they are the plug dropping. Does anyone have an estimate for lag time, and is this pattern clear yet?

    • Scenario A: Subsiding in Bárðarbunga stops soon. Eruption in Holuhraun ends. Scenario B: Great subsidance in BB, eruption outside the caldera. Scenario C: Great subsidance in BB, eruption in a edge fraction.

    • These diagrams make it look like Bardabunga could display what is sometimes called a ‘Glencoe’ subsidence – a central plug dropping down while magma erupts around the margins.

  18. Some Bardarbunga caldera facts. Got to know these last days, Bardarbunga has two magma chamber, one shallow, one deep. The magma of the current eruption is being drained of the shallow one, and that’s why we see the sinking, It’s a large chamber and still plenty mobile magma. This is why it is a grave concern for Icelanders the current risk of a caldera eruption.

    The other big concern is the SO2 levels. This is quickly becoming not a Laki but a mini-Laki event. Much gas quickly released and air quality quickly worsening. I experienced it first hand. The levels on East and North Iceland oscilate between those of an average city in rush time, and the levels of smog of a big city. Here in south Iceland, no SO2 yet, as wind as been almost constantly blowing from the southwest, likely for us.

  19. The clouds have been a pareidolia paradise all day. I may as well bring a Cajun flavor to Iceland…I saw no sharks…but I think I may have seen a few crawfish scooting around the banks of the river. They are probably afraid of all that heat since we are always dropping them live into boiling water. Watch out….those claws are deadly!

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